If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Research on semantic web services promises greater interoperability among software agents and web services by enabling content-based automated service discovery and interaction and by utilizing . Although this is to be based on use of shared ontologies published on the semantic web, services produced and described by different developers may well use different, perhaps partly overlapping, sets of ontologies. Interoperability will depend on ontology mappings and architectures supporting the associated translation processes. The question we ask is, does the traditional approach of introducing mediator agents to translate messages between requestors and services work in such an open environment? This article reviews some of the processing assumptions that were made in the development of the semantic web service modeling ontology OWL-S and argues that, as a practical matter, the translation function cannot always be isolated in mediators.
This article presents the methodology that has been successfully used over the past seven years by an interdisciplinary team to create the International Committee for Documentation of the International Council of Museums (CIDOC) CONCEPTUAL REFERENCE MODEL (CRM), a high-level ontology to enable information integration for cultural heritage data and their correlation with library and archive information. The CIDOC CRM is now in the process to become an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard. This article justifies in detail the methodology and design by functional requirements and gives examples of its contents. The CIDOC CRM analyzes the common conceptualizations behind data and metadata structures to support data transformation, mediation, and merging. It is argued that such ontologies are propertycentric, in contrast to terminological systems, and should be built with different methodologies.
Semantic Question Answering (QA) is the key technology to facilitate intuitive user access to semantic information stored in knowledge graphs. Whereas most of the existing QA systems and datasets focus on entity-centric questions, very little is known about the performance of these systems in the context of events. As new event-centric knowledge graphs emerge, datasets for such questions gain importance. In this paper we present the Event-QA dataset for answering event-centric questions over knowledge graphs. Event-QA contains 1000 semantic queries and the corresponding English, German and Portuguese verbalisations for EventKG - a recently proposed event-centric knowledge graph with over 970 thousand events.
The Web is ubiquitous, increasingly populated with interconnected data, services, people, and objects. Semantic web technologies (SWT) promote uniformity of data formats, as well as modularization and reuse of specifications (e.g., ontologies), by allowing them to include and refer to information provided by other ontologies. In such a context, multi-agent system (MAS) technologies are the right abstraction for developing decentralized and open Web applications in which agents discover, reason and act on Web resources and cooperate with each other and with people. The aim of the project is to propose an approach to transform "Agent and artifact (A&A) meta-model" into a Web-readable format with ontologies in line with semantic web formats and to reuse already existing ontologies in order to provide uniform access for agents to things.
Graphs, and knowledge graphs, are key concepts and technologies for the 2020s. What will they look like, and what will they enable going forward? We have been keeping track of the evolution of graphs since the early 2000s, and publishing the Year of the Graph newsletter since 2018. Graphs have numerous applications that span analytics, AI, and knowledge management. All of the above are built on a common substrate: data.
In this chapter, we give an introduction to symbolic artificial intelligence (AI) and discuss its relation and application to multimedia. We begin by defining what symbolic AI is, what distinguishes it from non-symbolic approaches, such as machine learning, and how it can used in the construction of advanced multimedia applications. We then introduce description logic (DL) and use it to discuss symbolic representation and reasoning. DL is the logical underpinning of OWL, the most successful family of ontology languages. After discussing DL, we present OWL and related Semantic Web technologies, such as RDF and SPARQL.
We present, FT-SWRL, a fuzzy temporal extension to the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL), which combines fuzzy theories based on the valid-time temporal model to provide a standard approach for modeling imprecise temporal domain knowledge in OWL ontologies. The proposal introduces a fuzzy temporal model for the semantic web, which is syntactically defined as a fuzzy temporal SWRL ontology (SWRL-FTO) with a new set of fuzzy temporal SWRL built-ins for defining their semantics. The SWRL-FTO hierarchically defines the necessary linguistic terminologies and variables for the fuzzy temporal model. An example model demonstrating the usefulness of the fuzzy temporal SWRL built-ins to model imprecise temporal information is also represented. Fuzzification process of interval-based temporal logic is further discussed as a reasoning paradigm for our FT-SWRL rules, with the aim of achieving a complete OWL-based fuzzy temporal reasoning. Literature review on fuzzy temporal representation approaches, both within and without the use of ontologies, led to the conclusion that the FT-SWRL model can authoritatively serve as a formal specification for handling imprecise temporal expressions on the semantic web.
The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) has been recently introduced as a W3C recommendation to define constraints that can be validated against RDF graphs. Interactions of SHACL with other Semantic Web technologies, such as ontologies or reasoners, is a matter of ongoing research. In this paper we study the interaction of a subset of SHACL with inference rules expressed in datalog. On the one hand, SHACL constraints can be used to define a "schema" for graph datasets. On the other hand, inference rules can lead to the discovery of new facts that do not match the original schema. Given a set of SHACL constraints and a set of datalog rules, we present a method to detect which constraints could be violated by the application of the inference rules on some graph instance of the schema, and update the original schema, i.e, the set of SHACL constraints, in order to capture the new facts that can be inferred. We provide theoretical and experimental results of the various components of our approach.