6 revolutionary things to know about Machine Learning


We are stepping into an avant-garde period, powered by advances in robotics, the adoption of smart home appliances, intelligent retail stores, self-driving car technology etc. Machine leaning is at the forefront of all these new-age technological advancements. The development of automated machines which have the capability match up to or maybe even surpass the human intelligence in the coming time. Machine learning is undoubtedly the next'big' thing. And, it is believed that most of the future technologies will be hooked on to it. Machine learning is given a lot of importance because it helps in prophesying behavior and spotting patterns that humans fail to predict.

Graphical Models for Inference with Missing Data

Neural Information Processing Systems

We address the problem of deciding whether there exists a consistent estimator of a given relation Q, when data are missing not at random. We employ a formal representation called Missingness Graphs' to explicitly portray the causal mechanisms responsible for missingness and to encode dependencies between these mechanisms and the variables being measured. Using this representation, we define the notion of \textit{recoverability} which ensures that, for a given missingness-graph $G$ and a given query $Q$ an algorithm exists such that in the limit of large samples, it produces an estimate of $Q$ \textit{as if} no data were missing. We further present conditions that the graph should satisfy in order for recoverability to hold and devise algorithms to detect the presence of these conditions. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

A Novel Two-Step Method for Cross Language Representation Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Cross language text classification is an important learning task in natural language processing. A critical challenge of cross language learning lies in that words of different languages are in disjoint feature spaces. In this paper, we propose a two-step representation learning method to bridge the feature spaces of different languages by exploiting a set of parallel bilingual documents. Specifically, we first formulate a matrix completion problem to produce a complete parallel document-term matrix for all documents in two languages, and then induce a cross-lingual document representation by applying latent semantic indexing on the obtained matrix. We use a projected gradient descent algorithm to solve the formulated matrix completion problem with convergence guarantees.

A Multiplicative Model for Learning Distributed Text-Based Attribute Representations

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper we propose a general framework for learning distributed representations of attributes: characteristics of text whose representations can be jointly learned with word embeddings. Attributes can correspond to a wide variety of concepts, such as document indicators (to learn sentence vectors), language indicators (to learn distributed language representations), meta-data and side information (such as the age, gender and industry of a blogger) or representations of authors. We describe a third-order model where word context and attribute vectors interact multiplicatively to predict the next word in a sequence. This leads to the notion of conditional word similarity: how meanings of words change when conditioned on different attributes. We perform several experimental tasks including sentiment classification, cross-lingual document classification, and blog authorship attribution.

Improved Multimodal Deep Learning with Variation of Information

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deep learning has been successfully applied to multimodal representation learning problems, with a common strategy to learning joint representations that are shared across multiple modalities on top of layers of modality-specific networks. Nonetheless, there still remains a question how to learn a good association between data modalities; in particular, a good generative model of multimodal data should be able to reason about missing data modality given the rest of data modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal representation learning framework that explicitly aims this goal. Rather than learning with maximum likelihood, we train the model to minimize the variation of information. We provide a theoretical insight why the proposed learning objective is sufficient to estimate the data-generating joint distribution of multimodal data.

Out-of-Distribution Detection using Multiple Semantic Label Representations

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deep Neural Networks are powerful models that attained remarkable results on a variety of tasks. These models are shown to be extremely efficient when training and test data are drawn from the same distribution. However, it is not clear how a network will act when it is fed with an out-of-distribution example. In this work, we consider the problem of out-of-distribution detection in neural networks. We propose to use multiple semantic dense representations instead of sparse representation as the target label.

Deep Recursive Neural Networks for Compositionality in Language

Neural Information Processing Systems

Recursive neural networks comprise a class of architecture that can operate on structured input. They have been previously successfully applied to model compositionality in natural language using parse-tree-based structural representations. Even though these architectures are deep in structure, they lack the capacity for hierarchical representation that exists in conventional deep feed-forward networks as well as in recently investigated deep recurrent neural networks. In this work we introduce a new architecture --- a deep recursive neural network (deep RNN) --- constructed by stacking multiple recursive layers. We evaluate the proposed model on the task of fine-grained sentiment classification.

Scalable Non-linear Learning with Adaptive Polynomial Expansions

Neural Information Processing Systems

Can we effectively learn a nonlinear representation in time comparable to linear learning? We describe a new algorithm that explicitly and adaptively expands higher-order interaction features over base linear representations. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

PointDAN: A Multi-Scale 3D Domain Adaption Network for Point Cloud Representation

Neural Information Processing Systems

Domain Adaptation (DA) approaches achieved significant improvements in a wide range of machine learning and computer vision tasks (i.e., classification, detection, and segmentation). However, as far as we are aware, there are few methods yet to achieve domain adaptation directly on 3D point cloud data. The unique challenge of point cloud data lies in its abundant spatial geometric information, and the semantics of the whole object is contributed by including regional geometric structures. Specifically, most general-purpose DA methods that struggle for global feature alignment and ignore local geometric information are not suitable for 3D domain alignment. In this paper, we propose a novel 3D Domain Adaptation Network for point cloud data (PointDAN).

Neural Expectation Maximization

Neural Information Processing Systems

Many real world tasks such as reasoning and physical interaction require identification and manipulation of conceptual entities. A first step towards solving these tasks is the automated discovery of distributed symbol-like representations. In this paper, we explicitly formalize this problem as inference in a spatial mixture model where each component is parametrized by a neural network. Based on the Expectation Maximization framework we then derive a differentiable clustering method that simultaneously learns how to group and represent individual entities. We evaluate our method on the (sequential) perceptual grouping task and find that it is able to accurately recover the constituent objects.