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LSDAT: Low-Rank and Sparse Decomposition for Decision-based Adversarial Attack

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose LSDAT, an image-agnostic decision-based black-box attack that exploits low-rank and sparse decomposition (LSD) to dramatically reduce the number of queries and achieve superior fooling rates compared to the state-of-the-art decision-based methods under given imperceptibility constraints. LSDAT crafts perturbations in the low-dimensional subspace formed by the sparse component of the input sample and that of an adversarial sample to obtain query-efficiency. The specific perturbation of interest is obtained by traversing the path between the input and adversarial sparse components. It is set forth that the proposed sparse perturbation is the most aligned sparse perturbation with the shortest path from the input sample to the decision boundary for some initial adversarial sample (the best sparse approximation of shortest path, likely to fool the model). Theoretical analyses are provided to justify the functionality of LSDAT. Unlike other dimensionality reduction based techniques aimed at improving query efficiency (e.g, ones based on FFT), LSD works directly in the image pixel domain to guarantee that non-$\ell_2$ constraints, such as sparsity, are satisfied. LSD offers better control over the number of queries and provides computational efficiency as it performs sparse decomposition of the input and adversarial images only once to generate all queries. We demonstrate $\ell_0$, $\ell_2$ and $\ell_\infty$ bounded attacks with LSDAT to evince its efficiency compared to baseline decision-based attacks in diverse low-query budget scenarios as outlined in the experiments.