If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Random Forest is a flexible, easy to use machine learning algorithm that produces, even without hyper-parameter tuning, a great result most of the time. It is also one of the most used algorithms, because it's simplicity and the fact that it can be used for both classification and regression tasks. In this post, you are going to learn, how the random forest algorithm works and several other important things about it. Random Forest is a supervised learning algorithm. Like you can already see from it's name, it creates a forest and makes it somehow random.
Alejandro Saucedo (Founder @ Exponential Technologies) and Donald Whyte (Software Engineer @ Engineers Gate) @ Moscow Python Conf 2017 "There is a lot of hype about deep learning and everything AI, however behind all the noise there is a set of solid concepts and algorithms that have massive potential if used in the right way and with the right data. In this talk we will provide you with the key concepts you will need to build a solid understanding around the core of Machine Learning. We will also cover key Deep Learning concepts and examples using Tensorflow that will help you understand the real potential of Deep Learning in practical applications. This talk will provide a theoretical overview that will then be put in practice in the Deep Learning workshop". Slides: https://conf.python.ru/python-ai-all-... Note: On 7.37 - 7.47 Alejandro says: "The hard part is how do we learn the hyperparameters of the function itself m and c, that is what ML is about.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are a class of deep generative models which aim to learn a target distribution in an unsupervised fashion. While they were successfully applied to many problems, training a GAN is a notoriously challenging task and requires a significant amount of hyperparameter tuning, neural architecture engineering, and a non-trivial amount of "tricks". The success in many practical applications coupled with the lack of a measure to quantify the failure modes of GANs resulted in a plethora of proposed losses, regularization and normalization schemes, and neural architectures. In this work we take a sober view of the current state of GANs from a practical perspective. We reproduce the current state of the art and go beyond fairly exploring the GAN landscape. We discuss common pitfalls and reproducibility issues, open-source our code on Github, and provide pre-trained models on TensorFlow Hub.
His research interests are in the area of large scale and online machine learning algorithms. He develops infinitely scalable machine learning algorithms for Amazon SageMaker. Amir Sadoughi is a Senior Software Development Engineer on the AWS AI SageMaker Algorithms team. He is passionate about technologies at the intersection of distributed systems and machine learning.
Generative Adversarial Networks are powerful generative models that are able to model the manifold of natural images. We leverage this property to perform manifold regularization by approximating a variant of the Laplacian norm using a Monte Carlo approximation that is easily computed with the GAN. When incorporated into the semi-supervised feature-matching GAN we achieve state-of-the-art results for GAN-based semi-supervised learning on CIFAR-10 and SVHN benchmarks, with a method that is significantly easier to implement than competing methods. We also find that manifold regularization improves the quality of generated images, and is affected by the quality of the GAN used to approximate the regularizer.
Understanding the influence of hyperparameters on the performance of a machine learning algorithm is an important scientific topic in itself and can help to improve automatic hyperparameter tuning procedures. Unfortunately, experimental meta data for this purpose is still rare. This paper presents a large, free and open dataset addressing this problem, containing results on 38 OpenML data sets, six different machine learning algorithms and many different hyperparameter configurations. Result where generated by an automated random sampling strategy, termed the OpenML Random Bot. Each algorithm was cross-validated up to 20.000 times per dataset with different hyperparameters settings, resulting in a meta dataset of around 2.5 million experiments overall.
Occupant behavior (OB) and in particular window openings need to be considered in building performance simulation (BPS), in order to realistically model the indoor climate and energy consumption for heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). However, the proposed OB window opening models are often biased towards the over-represented class where windows remained closed. In addition, they require tuning for each occupant which can not be efficiently scaled to the increased number of occupants. This paper presents a window opening model for commercial buildings using deep learning methods. The model is trained using data from occupants from an office building in Germany. In total the model is evaluated using almost 20 mio. data points from 3 independent buildings, located in Aachen, Frankfurt and Philadelphia. Eventually, the results of 3100 core hours of model development are summarized, which makes this study the largest of its kind in window states modeling. Additionally, the practical potential of the proposed model was tested by incorporating it in the Modelica-based thermal building simulation. The resulting evaluation accuracy and F1 scores on the office buildings ranged between 86-89 % and 0.53-0.65 respectively. The performance dropped around 15 % points in case of sparse input data, while the F1 score remained high.
Automatic machine learning performs predictive modeling with high performing machine learning tools without human interference. This is achieved by making machine learning applications parameter-free, i.e. only a dataset is provided while the complete model selection and model building process is handled internally through (often meta) optimization. Projects like Auto-WEKA and auto-sklearn aim to solve the Combined Algorithm Selection and Hyperparameter optimization (CASH) problem resulting in huge configuration spaces. However, for most real-world applications, the optimization over only a few different key learning algorithms can not only be sufficient, but also potentially beneficial. The latter becomes apparent when one considers that models have to be validated, explained, deployed and maintained. Here, less complex model are often preferred, for validation or efficiency reasons, or even a strict requirement. Automatic gradient boosting simplifies this idea one step further, using only gradient boosting as a single learning algorithm in combination with model-based hyperparameter tuning, threshold optimization and encoding of categorical features. We introduce this general framework as well as a concrete implementation called autoxgboost. It is compared to current AutoML projects on 16 datasets and despite its simplicity is able to achieve comparable results on about half of the datasets as well as performing best on two.
Gaussian process regression is a machine learning approach which has been shown its power for estimation of unknown functions. However, Gaussian processes suffer from high computational complexity, as in a basic form they scale cubically with the number of observations. Several approaches based on inducing points were proposed to handle this problem in a static context. These methods though face challenges with real-time tasks and when the data is received sequentially over time. In this paper, a novel online algorithm for training sparse Gaussian process models is presented. It treats the mean and hyperparameters of the Gaussian process as the state and parameters of the ensemble Kalman filter, respectively. The online evaluation of the parameters and the state is performed on new upcoming samples of data. This procedure iteratively improves the accuracy of parameter estimates. The ensemble Kalman filter reduces the computational complexity required to obtain predictions with Gaussian processes preserving the accuracy level of these predictions. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated on the synthetic dataset and real large dataset of UK house prices.
An obstacle for newbies in artificial neural networks is the learning rate. I was asked many times about the effect of the learning rate in the training of the artificial neural networks (ANNs). Why we use learning rate? What is the best value for the learning rate? In this article, I will try to make things simpler by providing an example that shows how learning rate is useful in order to train an ANN.