If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
When implementing the ResNet architecture in a deep learning project I was working on, it was a huge leap from the basic, simple convolutional neural networks I was used to. One prominent feature of ResNet is that it utilizes a micro-architecture within it's larger macroarchitecture: residual blocks! I decided to look into the model myself to gain a better understanding of it, as well as look into why it was so successful at ILSVRC. I implemented the exact same ResNet model class in Deep Learning for Computer Vision with Python by Dr. Adrian Rosebrock , which followed the ResNet model from the 2015 ResNet academic publication, Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition by He et al. . When ResNet was first introduced, it was revolutionary for proving a new solution to a huge problem for deep neural networks at the time: the vanishing gradient problem.
In this article, you will discover XGBoost and get a gentle introduction to what it is, where it came from and how you can learn more. Bagging: It is an approach where you take random samples of data, build learning algorithms and take simple means to find bagging probabilities. Boosting: Boosting is similar, however, the selection of sample is made more intelligently. We subsequently give more and more weight to hard to classify observations. XGBoost is an optimized distributed gradient boosting library designed to be highly efficient, flexible and portable.
This article is part of the Intro to Deep Learning: Neural Networks for Novices, Newbies, and Neophytes Series. Let's start with a quick recap from part 1 for anyone who hasn't looked at it: At a very basic level, deep learning is a machine learning technique. It teaches a computer to filter inputs through layers to learn how to predict and classify information. Observations can be in the form of images, text, or sound. The inspiration for deep learning is the way that the human brain filters information. Its purpose is to mimic how the human brain works to create some real magic. Deep learning attempts to mimic the activity in layers of neurons in the neocortex.
Mode collapse happens quite often and there are some ways to prevent it from happening, #willdiscusshortly. This is a very often problem we see in deep neural networks in general, the same problem gets stronger here because the gradient at Discriminator not only goes back to Discriminator network but also it goes back to Generator network as feedback. Because of it there is no stability in training GAN's. Nash equilibrium happens when one player does not change his/her actions regardless of what the other is doing. Here the kid is neither lossing nor winning.
During holidays I wanted to ramp up my reinforcement learning skills. Knowing absolutely nothing about the field, I did a course where I was exposed to Q-learning and its "deep" equivalent (Deep-Q Learning). That's where I got exposed to OpenAI's Gym where they have several environments for the agent to play in and learn from. The course was limited to Deep-Q learning, so as I read more on my own. I realized there are now better algorithms such as policy gradients and its variations (such as Actor-Critic method).
Long Short Term Memory networks, usually called "LSTMs", were introduced by Hochreiter and Schmiduber. These have widely been used for speech recognition, language modeling, sentiment analysis and text prediction. Before going deep into LSTM, we should first understand the need of LSTM which can be explained by the drawback of practical use of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). So, lets start with RNN. Being human, when we watch a movie, we don't think from scratch every time while understanding any event.
The vanishing gradients problem is one example of unstable behavior that you may encounter when training a deep neural network. It describes the situation where a deep multilayer feed-forward network or a recurrent neural network is unable to propagate useful gradient information from the output end of the model back to the layers near the input end of the model. The result is the general inability of models with many layers to learn on a given dataset or to prematurely converge to a poor solution. Many fixes and workarounds have been proposed and investigated, such as alternate weight initialization schemes, unsupervised pre-training, layer-wise training, and variations on gradient descent. Perhaps the most common change is the use of the rectified linear activation function that has become the new default, instead of the hyperbolic tangent activation function that was the default through the late 1990s and 2000s. In this tutorial, you will discover how to diagnose a vanishing gradient problem when training a neural network model and how to fix it using an alternate activation function and weight initialization scheme.
The development of the perceptron was a big step towards the goal of creating useful connectionist networks capable of learning complex relations between inputs and outputs. In the late 1950's, the connectionist community understood that what was needed for further development of connectionist models was a mathematically-derived (and thus potentially more flexible and powerful) rule for learning. By early 1960's, the Delta Rule [also known as the Widrow & Hoff Learning rule or the Least Mean Square (LMS) rule] was invented by Widrow and Hoff. This rule is similar to the perceptron learning rule by McClelland & Rumelhart, 1988, but is also characterized by a mathematical utility and elegance missing in the perceptron and other early learning rules. The Delta Rule uses the difference between target activation (i.e., target output values) and obtained activation to drive learning.