If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
The field of artificial intelligence (AI) has created computers that can drive cars, synthesize chemical compounds, fold proteins and detect high-energy particles at a superhuman level. However, these AI algorithms cannot explain the thought processes behind their decisions. A computer that masters protein folding and also tells researchers more about the rules of biology is much more useful than a computer that folds proteins without explanation. Therefore, AI researchers like me are now turning our efforts toward developing AI algorithms that can explain themselves in a manner that humans can understand. If we can do this, I believe that AI will be able to uncover and teach people new facts about the world that have not yet been discovered, leading to new innovations.
Our reliance on artificial intelligence models is increasing day by day, and it's also becoming equally important to explain how and why AI This course provides detailed insights into the latest developments in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). Our reliance on artificial intelligence models is increasing day by day, and it's also becoming equally important to explain how and why AI makes a particular decision. Recent laws have also caused the urgency about explaining and defending the decisions made by AI systems. This course discusses tools and techniques using Python to visualize, explain, and build trustworthy AI systems. This course covers the working principle and mathematical modeling of LIME (Local Interpretable Model Agnostic Explanations), SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) for generating local and global explanations.
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) has been identified as a viable method for determining the importance of features when making predictions using Machine Learning (ML) models. In this study, we created models that take an individual's health information (e.g. their drug history and comorbidities) as inputs, and predict the probability that the individual will have an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) adverse outcome. Using XAI, we quantified the contribution that specific drugs had on these ACS predictions, thus creating an XAI-based technique for pharmacovigilance monitoring, using ACS as an example of the adverse outcome to detect. Individuals aged over 65 who were supplied Musculo-skeletal system (anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) class M) or Cardiovascular system (ATC class C) drugs between 1993 and 2009 were identified, and their drug histories, comorbidities, and other key features were extracted from linked Western Australian datasets. Multiple ML models were trained to predict if these individuals would have an ACS related adverse outcome (i.e., death or hospitalisation with a discharge diagnosis of ACS), and a variety of ML and XAI techniques were used to calculate which features -- specifically which drugs -- led to these predictions. The drug dispensing features for rofecoxib and celecoxib were found to have a greater than zero contribution to ACS related adverse outcome predictions (on average), and it was found that ACS related adverse outcomes can be predicted with 72% accuracy. Furthermore, the XAI libraries LIME and SHAP were found to successfully identify both important and unimportant features, with SHAP slightly outperforming LIME. ML models trained on linked administrative health datasets in tandem with XAI algorithms can successfully quantify feature importance, and with further development, could potentially be used as pharmacovigilance monitoring techniques.
Artificial intelligence (AI) enables machines to learn from human experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks. AI is progressing rapidly and is transforming the way businesses operate, from process automation to cognitive augmentation of tasks and intelligent process/data analytics. However, the main challenge for human users would be to understand and appropriately trust the result of AI algorithms and methods. In this paper, to address this challenge, we study and analyze the recent work done in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods and tools. We introduce a novel XAI process, which facilitates producing explainable models while maintaining a high level of learning performance. We present an interactive evidence-based approach to assist human users in comprehending and trusting the results and output created by AI-enabled algorithms. We adopt a typical scenario in the Banking domain for analyzing customer transactions. We develop a digital dashboard to facilitate interacting with the algorithm results and discuss how the proposed XAI method can significantly improve the confidence of data scientists in understanding the result of AI-enabled algorithms.
The black-box nature of current artificial intelligence (AI) has caused some to question whether AI must be explainable to be used in high-stakes scenarios such as medicine. It has been argued that explainable AI will engender trust with the health-care workforce, provide transparency into the AI decision making process, and potentially mitigate various kinds of bias. In this Viewpoint, we argue that this argument represents a false hope for explainable AI and that current explainability methods are unlikely to achieve these goals for patient-level decision support.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms are increasingly providing decision making and operational support across multiple domains. AI includes a wide library of algorithms for different problems. One important notion for the adoption of AI algorithms into operational decision process is the concept of assurance. The literature on assurance, unfortunately, conceals its outcomes within a tangled landscape of conflicting approaches, driven by contradicting motivations, assumptions, and intuitions. Accordingly, albeit a rising and novel area, this manuscript provides a systematic review of research works that are relevant to AI assurance, between years 1985 - 2021, and aims to provide a structured alternative to the landscape. A new AI assurance definition is adopted and presented and assurance methods are contrasted and tabulated. Additionally, a ten-metric scoring system is developed and introduced to evaluate and compare existing methods. Lastly, in this manuscript, we provide foundational insights, discussions, future directions, a roadmap, and applicable recommendations for the development and deployment of AI assurance.
Before diving deep into the heavy explainable AI (artificial intelligence) concepts let us look at Rohan's story and understand "WHAT IS EXPLAINABLE AI?" & "WHY IS IT NEEDED?" Rohan was a machine learning engineer at a leading company and was very sick and had symptoms of lung cancer. He went to his doctor and discussed the issue and with him. The concerned doctor asked him to get some tests done and said "I can only come to a conclusion after that". Rohan got his tests done and showed the reports to the doctor. The doctor was certain of the diagnosis but still wanted to know more about his condition.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly pervasive and is experiencing widespread adoption in all industries. Faced with increasing competitive pressures and observing the AI success stories of their peers, more and more organizations are adopting AI in various facets of their business. Machine Learning (ML) models, the key component driving the AI systems, are becoming increasingly powerful, displaying superhuman capabilities on most tasks. However, this increased performance has been accompanied by an increase in model complexity, turning the AI systems into a black box whose decisions can be hard to understand by humans. Employing black box models can have severe ramifications, as the decisions made by the systems not only influence the business outcomes but can also impact many lives.
In the last years, XAI research has mainly been concerned with developing new technical approaches to explain deep learning models. Just recent research has started to acknowledge the need to tailor explanations to different contexts and requirements of stakeholders. Explanations must not only suit developers of models, but also domain experts as well as end users. Thus, in order to satisfy different stakeholders, explanation methods need to be combined. While multi-modal explanations have been used to make model predictions more transparent, less research has focused on treating explanation as a process, where users can ask for information according to the level of understanding gained at a certain point in time. Consequently, an opportunity to explore explanations on different levels of abstraction should be provided besides multi-modal explanations. We present a process-based approach that combines multi-level and multi-modal explanations. The user can ask for textual explanations or visualizations through conversational interaction in a drill-down manner. We use Inductive Logic Programming, an interpretable machine learning approach, to learn a comprehensible model. Further, we present an algorithm that creates an explanatory tree for each example for which a classifier decision is to be explained. The explanatory tree can be navigated by the user to get answers of different levels of detail. We provide a proof-of-concept implementation for concepts induced from a semantic net about living beings.