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Comment on "Circadian rhythms in the absence of the clock gene Bmal1"

Science

To better understand these surprising results, we reanalyzed the associated data. We were unable to reproduce the original findings, nor could we identify reliably cycling genes. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support circadian transcriptional rhythms in the absence of Bmal1. Recently, Ray et al. (1) reported transcriptional rhythmicity in mouse tissues lacking BMAL1. BMAL1 is a core component of the circadian molecular oscillator (2) whose deletion is associated with loss of physiological and molecular rhythms (3).


Understanding the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Giant companies dealing with artificial intelligence are setting benchmarks and crossing milestones today. Artificial intelligence is now a universe in itself, a commerce that tops every other forms of business, an entity that every business uses. However, it is important to know and remember that everything that is good is driven by some philosophy. Artificial intelligence too is enshrouded in philosophy which the majority is not aware of. Hence the philosophy of artificial intelligence is the most underrated.


Portfolio Optimization using Reinforcement Learning

#artificialintelligence

Reinforcement learning is arguably the coolest branch of artificial intelligence. It has already proven its prowess: stunning the world, beating the world champions in games of Chess, Go, and even DotA 2. Using RL for stock trading has always been a holy grail among data scientists. Stock trading has drawn our imaginations because of its ease of access and to misquote Cardi B, we like diamond and we like dollars . There are several ways of using Machine Learning for stock trading. One approach is to use forecasting techniques to predict the movement of the stock and build some heuristic based bot that uses the prediction to make decisions.


Is a Jaffa Cake a biscuit? Physicist uses AI to solve debate

Daily Mail - Science & tech

A physicist has used the power of artificial intelligence (AI) to solve the age-old debate about whether Jaffa Cakes are biscuits or cakes. Dr. Héloïse Stevance, an astrophysicist at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, trained algorithms with nearly 100 recipes of traditional cakes and biscuits. She then ran two Jaffa Cakes recipes through the algorithms, which recognised them unambiguously as cakes'without a doubt'. Jaffa Cakes, which are made by Edinburgh-based manufacturer McVitie's, consist of a disc of orange-flavoured jelly, milk chocolate and a mysterious spongy base. But fans of the popular British snack have passionately debated whether they're biscuits or cakes due to their unique texture and appearance.


Like Us, Deep Learning Networks Prefer a Human Voice

#artificialintelligence

The digital revolution is built on a foundation of invisible 1s and 0s called bits. As decades pass, and more and more of the world's information and knowledge morph into streams of 1s and 0s, the notion that computers prefer to "speak" in binary numbers is rarely questioned. According to new research from Columbia Engineering, this could be about to change. A new study from Mechanical Engineering Professor Hod Lipson and his PhD student Boyuan Chen proves that artificial intelligence systems might actually reach higher levels of performance if they are programmed with sound files of human language rather than with numerical data labels. The researchers discovered that in a side-by-side comparison, a neural network whose "training labels" consisted of sound files reached higher levels of performance in identifying objects in images, compared to another network that had been programmed in a more traditional manner, using simple binary inputs.


Women's pain 'perceived as less intense' than men's pain

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Pain felt by women is perceived as less intense by observers as pain felt by men, a new study reveals. US scientists found that when male and female patients experienced the same amount of pain, observers viewed female patients' pain as milder and more likely to benefit from psychotherapy than medication. Both male and female observers were found to be guilty of this'gender bias', which could lead to disparities in treatments and women in pain not getting the medication they need. According to the experts, the bias is due to an age-old stereotype that men are more'stoic' that women – and so their pain is likely to be more serious. University of Miami researchers found that when male and female patients expressed the same amount of pain, observers viewed female patients' pain as less intense and more likely to benefit from psychotherapy versus medication as compared to men's pain, exposing a significant patient gender bias that could lead to disparities in treatments (stock image) Health professionals use different terms for different types of pain.


Can AI help design our logo?

#artificialintelligence

We ordered some designs on a well known freelancer site. As reference we added instructions in the orders. "A kind, helpful looking elf with a santa hat", "i'd like it to be in the style of a mascot logo or combination logo", "it should be cute" etc and attached a few images of various robots and then I drew a very rough sketch. We started experimenting with CLIP and BigGAN through Ryan Murdocks "Big Sleep". We were testing what kind of images we could get by asking it to draw a green robot rocket with big cute eyes.


MIT study finds 'systematic' labeling errors in popular AI benchmark datasets

#artificialintelligence

The field of AI and machine learning is arguably built on the shoulders of a few hundred papers, many of which draw conclusions using data from a subset of public datasets. Large, labeled corpora have been critical to the success of AI in domains ranging from image classification to audio classification. That's because their annotations expose comprehensible patterns to machine learning algorithms, in effect telling machines what to look for in future datasets so they're able to make predictions. But while labeled data is usually equated with ground truth, datasets can -- and do -- contain errors. The processes used to construct corpora often involve some degree of automatic annotation or crowdsourcing techniques that are inherently error-prone.


The burgeoning reach of animal culture

Science

Before the mid-20th century, it was generally assumed that culture, behavior learned from others, was specific to humans. However, starting with identification in a few species, evidence that animals can learn and transmit behaviors has accumulated at an ever-increasing pace. Today, there is no doubt that culture is widespread among animal species, both vertebrates and invertebrates, marine and terrestrial. Whiten reviews evidence for animal culture and elaborates on the wide array of forms that such culture takes. Recognizing that other species have complex and varied culture has implications for conservation and welfare and for understanding the evolution of this essential component of animal societies, including our own. Science , this issue p. [eabe6514][1] ### BACKGROUND Culture—the inheritance of an array of behavioral traditions through social learning from others—was once thought specific to humans. Recent and accumulating evidence has shown that, to the contrary, culture permeates the lives of a great diversity of animals, with far-reaching implications for evolutionary biology, anthropology, and conservation. Early evidence for animal culture emerged in the mid–20th century in the discovery of regional birdsong dialects and the spread of provisioned sweet potato washing in Japanese monkeys. Stimulated by these discoveries, long-term studies of wild chimpanzees and orangutans later in the century revealed complex cultures composed of multiple traditions spanning diverse aspects of apes’ lives, from tool use to social and sexual behavior. In part through the accumulation of further long-term field studies, the present century has witnessed an explosion in discoveries about social learning and culture, not only in primates but also in a rapidly growing range of animal species, from cetaceans to a diverse array of birds, fish, and even invertebrates. ### ADVANCES Novel experimental designs have rigorously demonstrated the cultural transmission and spread of behavioral innovations introduced by researchers, both in the wild and in labs. New statistical methods have detected the signatures of behavioral innovations as they spread through social networks, identifying culture in species (e.g., whales) for which experiments are impractical. Through these and other methodological advances, the reach of cultural learning is now known to encompass an unexpected range of species, with surprising new discoveries extending even to insects, from bees to fruit flies. The reach of culture has similarly been discovered to span diversity in behavioral domains, including foraging techniques, tool use, vocal communication, social customs and preferences for particular prey, migratory pathways, nesting sites, and mates. The revelation that cultural inheritance permeates many species’ lives is increasingly recognized to have profound implications for evolutionary biology at large, because it provides a second form of inheritance that builds on the primary genetic inheritance system, facilitating cultural evolution. The two inheritance systems may generate rich interactive effects, as they have in humans. A plethora of innovative experiments has further identified an array of cognitive processes involved in learning from others, ranging from simple and ubiquitous forms to specialized ones such as imitation and teaching. These forms of social learning have been shown to be further refined through a variety of selective biases, such as conforming to majorities or copying particularly skilled elders. ### OUTLOOK United Nations bodies operating under the aegis of international conventions have recently recognized the importance of all that has been discovered about animal cultures, for conservation policies and practices. Among sperm whales and chimpanzees, specific cultural entities, as opposed to genetically defined units, have been recognized as meriting conservation in their own right. This finding, in turn, urges a greater focus on understanding cultural phenomena in the wild. The task of rigorously identifying social learning has relied heavily on controlled experiments in captivity, but field experiments are increasingly carried out. These and other innovative methods to identify and trace animal cultures in the wild deserve to be developed and applied further to wild populations. The wealth of methodological advances and empirical discoveries about animal cultures in the present century provides an exciting foundation from which to explore deeper questions. Do animal cultures evolve, cumulatively, as human cultures have done so impressively over past millennia? How profoundly does the lifetime reach of culture in animals’ lives reshape our understanding of behavioral ecology and the fundamentals of evolution at large? How close are human and animal cultures now perceived to be, and where do the principal differences remain? ![Figure][2] Diversity in cultural species and behavioral domains. ( A ) After filial imprinting on the costumed human pilot of a microlight aircraft, young cranes followed the flight path of this surrogate parent, adopting it as a traditional migratory route. ( B ) Female fruit flies (left) that witness a male marked with one of two colors mating (top right) later prefer to mate with similarly colored males. This behavior is further copied by others, initiating a tradition. ( C ) Bighorn sheep translocated to unfamiliar locations were initially sedentary, but spring migration and skill in reaching higher-altitude grazing grounds expanded over decades, implicating intergenerational cultural transmission. ( D ) Groups of vervet monkeys were trained to avoid bitter-tasting corn of one color and to prefer the other. Later, when offered these options with no distasteful additive, both naïve infants and immigrating adult males adopted the experimentally created local group preference. ( E ) Young meerkats learn scorpion predation because adults initially supply live prey with stingers removed and later provide unmodified prey as the young meerkats mature. ( F ) A humpback whale innovation of slapping the sea surface to refine predation, known as “lobtail feeding,” spread over two decades to create a new tradition in hundreds of other humpbacks. For reference citations, see the full article. Photos: (A) Thomas Mueller, (B) Etienne Danchin, (C) istock.com/skibreck, (D) Erica van de Waal, (E) Alex Thornton, (F) Jennifer Allen Culture can be defined as all that is learned from others and is repeatedly transmitted in this way, forming traditions that may be inherited by successive generations. This cultural form of inheritance was once thought specific to humans, but research over the past 70 years has instead revealed it to be widespread in nature, permeating the lives of a diversity of animals, including all major classes of vertebrates. Recent studies suggest that culture’s reach may extend also to invertebrates—notably, insects. In the present century, the reach of animal culture has been found to extend across many different behavioral domains and to rest on a suite of social learning processes facilitated by a variety of selective biases that enhance the efficiency and adaptiveness of learning. Far-reaching implications, for disciplines from evolutionary biology to anthropology and conservation policies, are increasingly being explored. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abe6514 [2]: pending:yes


Hot papers on arXiv from the past month: March 2021

AIHub

Here are the most tweeted papers that were uploaded onto arXiv during March 2021. Results are powered by Arxiv Sanity Preserver. Abstract: We consider the vector embedding problem. We are given a finite set of items, with the goal of assigning a representative vector to each one, possibly under some constraints (such as the collection of vectors being standardized, i.e., have zero mean and unit covariance). We are given data indicating that some pairs of items are similar, and optionally, some other pairs are dissimilar.