evolutionary algorithm

The Pursuit of Creativity Can Make Algorithms Much Smarter


In 2007, Kenneth Stanley, a computer scientist at the University of Central Florida, was playing with Picbreeder, a website he and his students had created, when an alien became a race car and changed his life. On Picbreeder, users would see an array of 15 similar images, composed of geometric shapes or swirly patterns, all variations on a theme. On occasion, some might resemble a real object, like a butterfly or a face. Users were asked to select one, and they typically clicked on whatever they found most interesting. Once they did, a new set of images, all variations on their choice, would populate the screen.

AI Makes the World a Weirder Place, and That's Okay


Artificial intelligence can do some amazing things, but it's not perfect. Research scientist Dr. Janelle Shane has been cataloging "the sometimes hilarious, sometimes unsettling ways that algorithms get things wrong" on her website, AI Weirdness, and dives deeper into the topic in her new book, out this week. Time and time again, Dr. Shane's neural nets ingest the data she throws at them and spits out some strange stuff--from inedible recipes (horseradish brownies, anyone?) to bizarre cat names and paint colors from hell. At first glance, Dr. Shane's book--You Look Like a Thing and I Love You: How AI Works and Why It's Making the World a Weirder Place--seems like a lighthearted, cartoon-enhanced look at AI, but there are some lessons about human vulnerabilities. We spoke to Dr. Shane to find out why she wrote the book and what she hopes we'll learn from it.

Overview of AI Libraries in Java Baeldung


Since this article is about libraries, we'll not make any introduction to AI itself. Additionally, theoretical background of AI is necessary in order to use libraries presented in this article. AI is a very wide field, so we will be focusing on the most popular fields today like Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, Neural Networks and more. In the end, we'll mention few interesting AI challenges where you can practice your understanding of AI. Apache Jena is an open source Java framework for building semantic web and linked data applications from RDF data.

Domain Generalization via Model-Agnostic Learning of Semantic Features


Generalization capability to unseen domains is crucial for machine learning models when deploying to real-world conditions. We investigate the challenging problem of domain generalization, i.e., training a model on multi-domain source data such that it can directly generalize to target domains with unknown statistics. We adopt a model-agnostic learning paradigm with gradient-based meta-train and meta-test procedures to expose the optimization to domain shift. Further, we introduce two complementary losses which explicitly regularize the semantic structure of the feature space. Globally, we align a derived soft confusion matrix to preserve general knowledge about inter-class relationships.

Google AI Targets Video Understanding With Speedy 'TinyVideoNet' and Other Approaches


Since August Google AI researchers have published or revised three different papers on optimizing video search feature representation. The aim is to improve on previous approaches in the field that required manually designing CNN architectures to understand videos. Google's latest contribution came last week with "Tiny Video Networks (TVN)," a new method for reducing the runtime of neural networks when analyzing videos that is significantly faster than existing models. In August Google revised a paper it had previously published introducing EvaNet, the first automated neural architecture search algorithm for video understanding. EvaNet can be applied to extended 2D architectures, and allows individual modules to evolve.

D-Point Trigonometric Path Planning based on Q-Learning in Uncertain Environments

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Finding the optimum path for a robot for moving from start to the goal position through obstacles is still a challenging issue. Thi s paper presents a novel path planning method, named D - point trigonometric, based on Q - learning algorithm for dynamic and uncertain environments, in which all the obstacles and the target are moving. We define a new state, action and reward functions for t he Q - learning by which the agent can find the best action in every state to reach the goal in the most appropriate path. Moreover, the experiment s in Unity3D confirmed the high convergence speed, the high hit rate, as well as the low dependency on environmental parameters of the proposed method compared with an opponent approach. The planning has been considered as a challenging concern in video games [1], transportation systems [2], and mobile robots [3] [4] . A s the most important path planning issues, w e can refer to the dynamics and the uncertainty of the environment, the smoothness and the length of the path, obstacle avoidance, and the computation al cost . In the last few decades, researchers have done numerous research efforts to present new approaches to solve them [5] [6] [7] [8] . Generally, most of the path planning approaches are categorized to one of the following methods [9] [10] [11]: ( 1) Classical methods (a) Computational geometry (CG) (b) Probabilistic r oadmap (PRM) (c) Potential fields method (PFM) ( 2) Heuristic and meta heuristic methods (a) Soft computing (b) Hybrid algorithms Since the complexity and the execution time of CG methods were high [11], PRMs were proposed to red uce the search space using techniques like milestones [12] .

Convex Optimisation for Inverse Kinematics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

W e consider the problem of inverse kinematics (IK), where one wants to find the parameters of a given kinematic skeleton that best explain a set of observed 3D joint locations. The kinematic skeleton has a tree structure, where each node is a joint that has an associated geometric transformation that is propagated to all its child nodes. The IK problem has various applications in vision and graphics, for example for tracking or reconstructing articulated objects, such as human hands or bodies. Most commonly, the IK problem is tackled using local optimisation methods. A major downside of these approaches is that, due to the non-convex nature of the problem, such methods are prone to converge to unwanted local optima and therefore require a good initialisation. In this paper we propose a convex optimisation approach for the IK problem based on semidef-inite programming, which admits a polynomial-time algorithm that globally solves (a relaxation of) the IK problem. Experimentally, we demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms local optimisation methods using different real-world skeletons.

Artificial Intelligence May Better Detect Sleep Apnea - Docwire News


Machine learning algorithms--also known as artificial intelligence (AI)--can better detect sleep apnea compared with traditional linear approaches, according to a study being presented at the CHEST Annual Meeting 2019. The researchers included 620 patients who were referred to a sleep lab in a suburban community sleep center. Researchers collected information on 12 select parameters: height, weight, waist, hip, body mass index, age, neck side, Modified Friedman stage, snoring, Epworth sleepiness scale, sex, and daytime sleepiness. During phase I, researchers used a binary particle swarm optimization technique to select the best sub-features that characterize sleep apnea. In phase II, they built an artificial neural network model based on a feedforward algorithm to detect sleep apnea.

GenSample: A Genetic Algorithm for Oversampling in Imbalanced Datasets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Imbalanced datasets are ubiquitous. Classification performance on imbalanced datasets is generally poor for the minority class as the classifier cannot learn decision boundaries well. However, in sensitive applications like fraud detection, medical diagnosis, and spam identification, it is extremely important to classify the minority instances correctly. In this paper, we present a novel technique based on genetic algorithms, GenSample, for oversampling the minority class in imbalanced datasets. GenSample decides the rate of oversampling a minority example by taking into account the difficulty in learning that example, along with the performance improvement achieved by oversampling it. This technique terminates the oversampling process when the performance of the classifier begins to deteriorate. Consequently, it produces synthetic data only as long as a performance boost is obtained. The algorithm was tested on 9 real-world imbalanced datasets of varying sizes and imbalance ratios. It achieved the highest F-Score on 8 out of 9 datasets, confirming its ability to better handle imbalanced data compared to other existing methodologies.

Tractable Minor-free Generalization of Planar Zero-field Ising Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a new family of zero-field Ising models over $N$ binary variables/spins obtained by consecutive "gluing" of planar and $O(1)$-sized components and subsets of at most three vertices into a tree. The polynomial-time algorithm of the dynamic programming type for solving exact inference (computing partition function) and exact sampling (generating i.i.d. samples) consists in a sequential application of an efficient (for planar) or brute-force (for $O(1)$-sized) inference and sampling to the components as a black box. To illustrate the utility of the new family of tractable graphical models, we first build a polynomial algorithm for inference and sampling of zero-field Ising models over $K_{3,3}$-minor-free topologies and over $K_{5}$-minor-free topologies -- both are extensions of the planar zero-field Ising models -- which are neither genus - nor treewidth-bounded. Second, we demonstrate empirically an improvement in the approximation quality of the NP-hard problem of inference over the square-grid Ising model in a node-dependent non-zero "magnetic" field.