If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is a population-based search algorithm based on the simulation of the social behavior of birds within a flock. The initial intent of the particle swarm concept was to graphically simulate the graceful and unpredictable choreography of a bird flock, to discover patterns that govern the ability of birds to fly synchronously, and to suddenly change direction by regrouping in an optimal formation. From this initial objective, the concept evolved into a simple and efficient optimization algorithm. So, just like the Genetic Algorithm, PSO is inspired by nature. In PSO, individuals, also referred to as particles, are "flown" through hyperdimensional search space. Changes to the position of particles within the search space are based on the social-psychological tendency of individuals to emulate the success of other individuals.
Zbigniew Michalewicz is Emeritus Professor of Computer Science at the University of Adelaide in Australia. He completed his Masters degree at Technical University of Warsaw in 1974 and he received Ph.D. degree from the Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, in 1981. He also holds a Doctor of Science degree in Computer Science from the Polish Academy of Science. Zbigniew Michalewicz also holds Professor positions at the Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, the Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, and the State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering of Wuhan University, China. He is also associated with the Structural Complexity Laboratory at Seoul National University, South Korea.
Genetic Algorithms in Java Basics is a brief introduction to solving problems using genetic algorithms, with working projects and solutions written in the Java programming language. This brief book will guide you step-by-step through various implementations of genetic algorithms and some of their common applications, with the aim to give you a practical understanding allowing you to solve your own unique, individual problems. After reading this book you will be comfortable with the language specific issues and concepts involved with genetic algorithms and you'll have everything you need to start building your own.
Evolutionary computation, the use of evolutionary systems as computational processes for solving complex problems, is a tool used by computer scientists and engineers who want to harness the power of evolution to build useful new artifacts, by biologists interested in developing and testing better models of natural evolutionary systems, and by artificial life scientists for designing and implementing new artificial evolutionary worlds. In this clear and comprehensive introduction to the field, Kenneth De Jong presents an integrated view of the state of the art in evolutionary computation. Although other books have described such particular areas of the field as genetic algorithms, genetic programming, evolution strategies, and evolutionary programming, Evolutionary Computation is noteworthy for considering these systems as specific instances of a more general class of evolutionary algorithms. This useful overview of a fragmented field is suitable for classroom use or as a reference for computer scientists and engineers.
Parameter adaptation, that is the capability to automatically adjust an algorithm's hyperparameters depending on the problem being faced, is one of the main trends in evolutionary computation applied to numerical optimization. While several handcrafted adaptation policies have been proposed over the years to address this problem, only few attempts have been done so far at apply machine learning to learn such policies. Here, we introduce a general-purpose framework for performing parameter adaptation in continuous-domain metaheuristics based on state-of-the-art reinforcement learning algorithms. We demonstrate the applicability of this framework on two algorithms, namely Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategies (CMA-ES) and Differential Evolution (DE), for which we learn, respectively, adaptation policies for the step-size (for CMA-ES), and the scale factor and crossover rate (for DE). We train these policies on a set of 46 benchmark functions at different dimensionalities, with various inputs to the policies, in two settings: one policy per function, and one global policy for all functions.
There are lots of definitions of AI. According to the Merrian-Webster dictionary, Artificial Intelligence is a large area of computer science that simulates intelligent behavior in computers. Based on this, an algorithm implementation based on metaheuristic called Particle Swarm Optimization (originaly proposed to simulate birds searching for food, the movement of fishes' shoal, etc.) is able to simulate behaviors of swarms in order to optimize a numeric problem iteratively. It can be classified as a swarm intelligence algorithm like Ant Colony Algorithm, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and Bacterial Foraging, for example. Proposed in 1995 by J. Kennedy an R.Eberhart, the article "Particle Swarm Optimization" became very popular due his continue optimization process allowing variations to multi targets and more.
This marks a new phase in the SingularityNET ecosystem, where we will foster the growth of the platform by supporting projects with AGIX tokens, knowledge and experience. We are very happy to present the projects that have been selected by our engaged community to be awarded with their requested amounts. While the portal was open, a total of 47 proposals were submitted for the $1million worth of AGIX token treasury funds, which made this round a fair success! After reviewing the proposals on their formal compliance to the Deep Funding rules, only 28 made it to the voting round. All of these 28 had more than the required 1% of cast votes, but only a minority of 12 proposals received an average grade of 6,5 or higher.
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Evaporation calculations are important for the proper management of hydrological resources, such as reservoirs, lakes, and rivers. Data-driven approaches, such as adaptive neuro fuzzy inference, are getting popular in many hydrological fields. This paper investigates the effective implementation of artificial intelligence on the prediction of evaporation for agricultural area. In particular, it presents the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and hybridization of ANFIS with three optimizers, which include the genetic algorithm (GA), firefly algorithm (FFA), and particle swarm optimizer (PSO). Six different measured weather variables are taken for the proposed modelling approach, including the maximum, minimum, and average air temperature, sunshine hours, wind speed, and relative humidity of a given location. Models are separately calibrated with a total of 86 data points over an eight-year period, from 2010 to 2017, at the specified station, located in Arizona, United States of America. Farming lands and humid climates are the reason for choosing this location. Ten statistical indices are calculated to find the best fit model. Comparisons shows that ANFIS and ANFIS–PSO are slightly better than ANFIS–FFA and ANFIS–GA. Though the hybrid ANFIS–PSO (R2= 0.99, VAF = 98.85, RMSE = 9.73, SI = 0.05) is very close to the ANFIS (R2 = 0.99, VAF = 99.04, RMSE = 8.92, SI = 0.05) model, preference can be given to ANFIS, due to its simplicity and easy operation.
A smart city is a city that uses technology to provide services and solve city problems. The main goals of a smart city are to improve policy efficiency, reduce waste and inconvenience, improve social and economic quality, and maximize social inclusion. Due to the breadth of technologies that have been implemented under the smart city label, it is difficult to distill a precise definition of a smart city. As the world's population continues to urbanize – by 2050, 66% of the world's population is expected to be urban – there is a global trend toward the creation of smart cities. This tendency not only causes many physical, social, behavioural, economic, and infrastructure issues, but it also creates many opportunities.