If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
"We spent all those years adopting EHRs, and now we're wanting to get the most out of them. Now we have the digital data, so it should be more liquid and in control of patients and put to use in the care process, even if I go to multiple sites for my care." As ONC and CMS prepare to digest the voluminous public comment on their proposed interoperability rules, especially the emphasis on exchange specs such as FHIR and open APIs, he sees the future only getting brighter for these types of advances as data flows more freely. "We're in the interoperability business, and we like having data being more available and more liquid, and systems being more open to getting data out of them," Woodlock said. "A lot of customers are starting to embark on their journey with with FHIR, and they're really bullish on this as well: having a standards-based API way to interact with medical record medical record data," he added.
When Merdis Wells visited the diabetes clinic at the University Medical Center in New Orleans about a year ago, a nurse practitioner checked her eyes to look for signs of diabetic retinopathy, the most common cause of blindness. At her next visit, in February of this year, artificial intelligence software made the call. The clinic had just installed a system that's designed to identify patients who need follow-up attention. The Food and Drug Administration cleared the system -- called IDx-DR -- for use in 2018. The agency said it was the first time it had authorized the marketing of a device that makes a screening decision without a clinician having to get involved in the interpretation.
Alexa's involvement in healthcare is about to extend well beyond putting Echo speakers in hospital rooms. Amazon has unveiled the first-ever HIPAA-compliant Alexa skills, letting you use the voice assistant to take care of sensitive medical issues. Joseph Health's skill can book a same-day appointment, for example, while Cigna and Express Scripts have introduced skills that respectively track wellness incentives and manage prescriptions. Livongo, meanwhile, has a skill for diabetics that can provide blood glucose readings and health tips. Other skills are coming from Atrium Health, Boston Hospital's post-surgery program and Swedish Health Connect.
When Dr. Eric Topol joined an experiment on using artificial intelligence to get personalized nutrition advice, he was hopeful. For two weeks, Topol, a cardiologist at Scripps Research, dutifully tracked everything he ate, wore a sensor to monitor his blood-glucose levels, and even collected and mailed off a stool sample for an analysis of his gut microbiome. The diet advice he got back stunned him: Eat Bratwurst, nuts, danishes, strawberries, and cheesecake. "It was crazy stuff," Topol told me. Bratwurst and cheesecake are foods Topol generally shirks because he considers them "unhealthy."
I hope you enjoyed your weekend. Would you want to be told you're dying over a video screen attached to a robot? A 78-year-old California man received news of his demise in exactly that fashion, the BBC reports. A robotic unit used to conduct telemedicine visits came into Ernest Quintana's hospital room, where he was with his granddaughter and a friend of his daughter's, and a doctor on its video screen (sitting at an unknown remote location) reportedly told him that his lungs were irrevocably damaged and he would soon die. Quintana passed away the following day.
Today, in these vision centers, technicians take eye scans and send them to doctors in Madurai for review. Automated diagnosis can streamline and expand the process, reaching more people in more places -- the kind of "McDonaldization" espoused by Dr. V. The technology still faces regulatory hurdles in India, in part because of the difficulty of navigating the country's bureaucracy. And though Google's eye system is now certified for use in Europe, it is still awaiting approval in the United States. Luke Oakden-Rayner, the director of medical imaging research at the Royal Adelaide Hospital in Australia, said these systems might even need new regulatory frameworks because existing rules weren't always sufficient. "I am not convinced that people care enough about the safety of these systems," he said.
Leading Chinese AI startup 4Paradigm has announced a strategic partnership with Shanghai's Ruijin Hospital on AI application in healthcare, especially chronic health conditions. The two today unveiled their first AI-backed diabetes prediction and management product, "Rui Ning Zhi Tang," which predicts diabetes and diabetic cardiovascular complications risk in the next three years and provides assessments and personalized solutions for disease prevention and control. Ruijin is one of the most highly reputed hospitals in China. Its Department of Endocrinology has topped national endocrinology rankings for eight consecutive years. Ruijin also leads the National Metabolic Clinical Research Center and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Health.
Doctors can sometimes make a diagnosis when faced with cataracts and blurry eye scans. The Google system still struggles to do this. It is trained largely on clear, unobstructed images of the retina, though Google is exploring the use of lower-quality images. Even with this limitation, Dr. Kim said, the system can augment what doctors can do on their own. Aravind already operates small vision centers in many of the cities and villages surrounding Madurai.
After revolutionizing various industry sectors, the introduction of artificial intelligence in healthcare is transforming how we diagnose and treat critical disorders. A team of experts in the Laboratory for Respiratory Diseases at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, trained an AI-based computer algorithm using good quality data. Dr. Marko Topalovic, a postdoctoral researcher in the team, announced that AI was found to be more consistent and accurate in interpreting respiratory test results and in suggesting diagnoses, as compared to lung specialists. Likewise, Artificial Intelligence Research Centre for Neurological Disorders at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital and a research team from the Capital Medical University developed the BioMind AI system, which correctly diagnosed brain tumor in 87% of 225 cases in about 15 minutes, whereas the results of a team of 15 senior doctors displayed only 66% accuracy. The introduction of technologies such as deep learning and artificial intelligence in healthcare can help achieve more efficiency and precision.
The AI-powered, cloud-based system will be available for use by primary care providers. Over 30 million Americans have diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy--which occurs when blood sugar levels result in damage to retinal blood vessels--is considered mostly preventable. Still, it causes vision loss in tens of thousands of people each year and is the leading cause of blindness among working-age Americans. "Many patients with diabetes are not adequately screened for diabetic retinopathy since about 50 percent of them do not see their eye doctor on a yearly basis," Malvina Eydelman, MD, said in the FDA's official announcement. She serves as director of the Division of Ophthalmic, and Ear, Nose and Throat Devices at the agency's Center for Devices and Radiological Health.