decision


Can everyday AI be ethical. Fairness of Machine Learning Algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Combining big data and machine learning algorithms, the power of automatic decision tools induces as much hope as fear. Many recently enacted European legislation (GDPR) and French laws attempt to regulate the use of these tools. Leaving aside the well-identified problems of data confidentiality and impediments to competition, we focus on the risks of discrimination, the problems of transparency and the quality of algorithmic decisions. The detailed perspective of the legal texts, faced with the complexity and opacity of the learning algorithms, reveals the need for important technological disruptions for the detection or reduction of the discrimination risk, and for addressing the right to obtain an explanation of the auto- matic decision. Since trust of the developers and above all of the users (citizens, litigants, customers) is essential, algorithms exploiting personal data must be deployed in a strict ethical framework. In conclusion, to answer this need, we list some ways of controls to be developed: institutional control, ethical charter, external audit attached to the issue of a label.


Modern Machine Learning Algorithms: Strengths and Weaknesses

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In this guide, we'll take a practical, concise tour through modern machine learning algorithms. While other such lists exist, they don't really explain the practical tradeoffs of each algorithm, which we hope to do here. We'll discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm based on our experience. Categorizing machine learning algorithms is tricky, and there are several reasonable approaches; they can be grouped into generative/discriminative, parametric/non-parametric, supervised/unsupervised, and so on. However, from our experience, this isn't always the most practical way to group algorithms.


What goes into the right storage for AI? - IBM IT Infrastructure Blog

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Artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning and cognitive analytics are having a tremendous impact in areas ranging from medical diagnostics to self-driving cars. AI systems are highly dependent on enormous volumes of data--both at rest in repositories and in motion in real time--to learn from experience, make connections and arrive at critical business decisions. Usage of AI is also expected to expand significantly in the not-so-distant future. As a result, having the right storage to support the massive amounts of data required for AI workloads is an important consideration for an increasing number of organizations. Availability: When a business leader uses AI for critical tasks such as understanding how best to run their manufacturing process or to optimize their supply chain, they cannot afford to risk any loss of availability in the supporting storage system.


How smart is Artificial Intelligence?

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Artificial Intelligence is beginning to have transformative effects on consumers, enterprises, and governments around the world. The impacts are contributing by automating repetitive task, creating efficiencies, ubiquitously improving user experience, and creating ways for humans to improve our cognition. Furthermore, by 2020, the AI market is projected to reach $70 billion, driven by increasing computational power and improving approaches/applications with machine, deep learning, natural language processing and robotics and many a number of other technologies. To gain a better understanding of the perception of AI in the US, PwC surveyed 2,500 consumers and business decision makers. The objective is to better understand their attitudes towards artificial intelligence, and the future implications on business and society.


A Beginner's Guide to AI/ML – Machine Learning for Humans – Medium

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This guide is intended to be accessible to anyone. Basic concepts in probability, statistics, programming, linear algebra, and calculus will be discussed, but it isn't necessary to have prior knowledge of them to gain value from this series. Artificial intelligence will shape our future more powerfully than any other innovation this century. Anyone who does not understand it will soon find themselves feeling left behind, waking up in a world full of technology that feels more and more like magic. The rate of acceleration is already astounding.


Kicking the Sensing Habit

AI Magazine

Sensor dependency is an affliction that affects an alarming number of robots, and the problem is spreading. In some situations, sensor use is advisable, perhaps even unavoidable. However, there is an important difference between sensor use and sensor abuse. This article lists some of the telltale signs of sensor dependency and reveals the tricks of the trade used on unwitting roboticists by wily sensor pushers.


Toward Better Models Of The Design Process

AI Magazine

What are the powerful new ideas in knowledge based design? What important research issues require further investigation? Perhaps the key research problem in AIbased design for the 1980's is to develop better models of the design process. A comprehensive model of design should address the following aspects of the design process: the state of the design; the goal structure of the design process; design decisions; rationales for design decisions; control of the design process; and the role of learning in design This article presents some of the most important ideas emerging from current AI research on design, especially ideas for better models of design It is organized into sections dealing with each of the aspects of design listed above What is design? Why should we study it?


The Use of Artificial Intelligence by the United States Navy: Case Study of a Failure

AI Magazine

Organizations are adaptive systems that continually attempt to push the limits of their own effectiveness to approach perfection. This approach is true of the "mom and pop" store that is threatened by the growth of shopping malls. It is true of the gigantic corporation that is threatened by public regulation and private competition. It is particularly true of organizations that are confronted with complex tasks, the vagaries of uncertainty, and the high and visible costs of irreversible error. The cause of organization ineffectiveness or, indeed, failure is often perceived to be human frailty (Perrow 1984).


Universal Planning: An (Almost) Universally Bad Idea

AI Magazine

To present a sharp criticism of the approach known as universal planning, I begin by giving a precise definition of it. The key idea in this work is that an agent is working to achieve some goal and that to determine what to do next in the pursuit of this goal, the agent finds its current situation in a large table that prescribes the correct action to take. Of course, the action suggested by the table might simply be, "Think about your current situation and decide what to do next." This method is, in many ways, representative of the conventional approach to planning; however, what distinguishes universal plans from conventional plans is that the action suggested by a universal plan is always a primitive one that the agent can execute immediately (Agre and Chapman 1987; Drummond 1988; Kaelbling 1988; Nilsson 1989; Rosenschein and Kaelbling 1986; Schoppers 1987). Several authors have recently suggested that a possible approach to planning in uncertain domains is to analyze all possible situations beforehand and then store information about what to do in each.


Expert Systems: Techniques, Tools, and Applications

AI Magazine

The book is edited by Philip Klahr and the late Donald A. Waterman, both of Rand Corporation. The papers are selected from RAND technical reports published from 1977 to 1985. The book is most valuable to people learning knowledge engineering. Four of the papers provide interesting glimpses at the problems involved in transforming knowledge about a domain into computer representations. In addition, the book contains one or two interesting papers for researchers in each of the areas of knowledge acquisition, reasoning with uncertainty, and distributed problem solving.