If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
These overlaps are really conflicts, which can exist between two, three or more separate intents. Once your chatbot grows in the number of intents, and also the number of examples for each intent, finding overlaps or conflicts become harder. Often the approach is just to add more examples, which most probably will just add to the confusion. While the solution is not a lack of training data or examples, but conflicts within those examples. It does make sense to segment the examples clearly per intent, but overlaps might not be that easy to spot.
"Made in China" used to mean cheap and poor quality, and probably involving the theft of intellectual property somewhere along the line. That perception has been out of date for many years now. Counterfeiting by Chinese manufacturers is still a major problem in some industries, but the best Chinese companies are world leaders in quality and in innovation. European telecoms utilities are alarmed by Trump's demand that they exclude Huawei components from their 5G rollout programmes: if they comply, their 5G services will be late and expensive. China's two mobile payments giants, Alibaba's Alipay and Tencent's WeChat Pay, both have many more active users than PayPal and Apple Pay combined.
From foreign intervention in free elections to the rise of the American surveillance state, the Internet has transformed the relationship between the public and private sectors, especially democracy's public sphere. The global pandemic only further highlights the extent to which technological innovation is changing how we live, work, and play. What has too often gone unacknowledged is that the same revolution has produced a series of conflicts between our desires as consumers and our duties as citizens. Left unaddressed, the consequence is a moral vacuum that has become a threat to liberal democracy and human values. Surveillance in the Internet Age, whether by governments or companies, often relies on algorithmic searches of big data.
In 1940, a 20-year-old science fiction fan from Brooklyn found that he was growing tired of stories that endlessly repeated the myths of Frankenstein and Faust: Robots were created and destroyed their creator; robots were created and destroyed their creator-ad nauseum. So he began writing robot stories of his own. "[They were] robot stories of a new variety," he recalls. "Never, never was one of my robots to turn stupidly on his creator for no purpose but to demonstrate, for one more weary time, the crime and punishment of Faust. My robots were machines designed by engineers, not pseudo-men created by blasphemers. My robots reacted along the rational lines that existed in their'brains ' from the moment of construction."
It is nearly nine years since the death of Muammar al-Gaddafi, splintering Libya into a protracted conflict of contested rulers and warring militias. For more than a year now, Libya's U.N.-backed Government of National Accord (GNA) in the capital of Tripoli has been under attack by forces loyal to the rogue General Khalifa Haftar, who heads his own Libyan National Army (LNA) which controls swaths in the east of the country, including the city of Benghazi. While the GNA is supported by the United Nations, Turkey and – at least initially – the United States, the LNA gets its military might from Russia, Egypt, United Arab Emirates and, more quietly, France. On June 3, GNA-linked troops squeezed the LNA out of Tripoli's International Airport and proceeded to take back nearby cities, including Tarhouna and oilfields in Sharara, after months of Haftar-led occupation. The fighting has since progressed to Sirte, Gaddafi's hometown and onetime home base for ISIS in the region.
The US is using methods of violence against domestic protests it has repeatedly used in its imperial adventures abroad. As the world was gripped by the shocking scenes of police brutality against the Black community in the United States and the aggressive posture adopted by President Donald Trump against the protestors, an important development was missed by many observers. On May 29, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency flew a Predator drone, the machine used to kill suspected terrorists around the world, over the protestors in Minneapolis. The use of the drone led to immediate condemnations from civil rights groups on the ground, as the city of Minneapolis lies outside the 100-air-mile border zone where the CBP has jurisdiction. The incident is significant because it reflects the willingness of the US authorities to use technology developed to propagate imperial designs abroad against their own citizens.
Air power has played an increasingly important role in the Libyan conflict. The relatively flat featureless desert terrain of the north and coast means that ground units are easily spotted, with few places to hide. The air forces of both the United Nations-recognised Government of National Accord (GNA) and eastern-based commander Khalifa Haftar and his self-styled Libyan National Army (LNA) use French and Soviet-era fighter jets, antiquated and poorly maintained. While manned fighter aircraft have been used, for the most part the air war has been fought by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones. With nearly 1,000 air strikes conducted by UAVs, UN Special Representative to Libya Ghassan Salame called the conflict "the largest drone war in the world".
A United Arab Emirates (UAE) drone strike on a biscuit factory near the Libyan capital Tripoli on November 18 killed eight civilians and injured 27 others, Human Rights Watch (HRW) said. In a report released on Wednesday, the rights group said the UAE appeared to take little or no action to minimise civilian casualties and called on Emirati authorities to conduct a transparent investigation into the incident. "Since the current armed conflict in Tripoli erupted in April 2019, the UAE has been conducting air and drone strikes to support the Libyan Arab Armed forces, previously known as the Libyan National Army [LNA], one of two major parties to the conflict, some of which have resulted in civilian casualties," HRW said. "All causalities in the November incident were civilian factory workers, including seven Libyans and 28 foreign nationals, all of them men." Human Rights Watch visited the site and found remnants of at least four Blue Arrow-7 (BA-7) laser-guided missiles that were launched by a Wing Loong-II drone.
This post is part of our symposium on legal, operational, and ethical questions on the use of AI and machine learning in armed conflict.] I am grateful for the invitation to contribute to this online symposium. The preservation of international legal responsibility and agency concerning the employment of artificial-intelligence techniques and methods in relation to situations of armed conflict presents an array of pressing challenges and opportunities. In this post, I will seek to use one of the many useful framings in the ICRC's 2019 "Challenges" report's section on AI to widen the aperture further in order to identify or amplify four areas of concern: detention, humanitarian services, uninhabited military maritime systems, and legal advice. While it remains critical to place sufficient focus on weapons and, indeed, on the conduct of hostilities more widely, we ought to consider other (sometimes-related) areas of concern as well.
In the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, many were quick to spread deceptive information. I investigate here how reasoning in Description Logics (DLs) can detect inconsistencies between trusted medical sources and not trusted ones. The not-trusted information comes in natural language (e.g. "Covid-19 affects only the elderly"). To automatically convert into DLs, I used the FRED converter. Reasoning in Description Logics is then performed with the Racer tool.