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composition function


Knowledge Guided Text Retrieval and Reading for Open Domain Question Answering

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a general approach for open-domain question answering (QA) that models interactions between paragraphs using structural information from a knowledge base. We first describe how to construct a graph of passages from a large corpus, where the relations are either from the knowledge base or the internal structure of Wikipedia. We then introduce a reading comprehension model which takes this graph as an input, to better model relationships across pairs of paragraphs. This approach consistently outperforms competitive baselines in three open-domain QA datasets, WebQuestions, Natural Questions and TriviaQA, improving the pipeline-based state-of-the-art by 3--13%.


Compositional Network Embedding

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Network embedding has proved extremely useful in a variety of network analysis tasks such as node classification, link prediction, and network visualization. Almost all the existing network embedding methods learn to map the node IDs to their corresponding node embeddings. This design principle, however, hinders the existing methods from being applied in real cases. Node ID is not generalizable and, thus, the existing methods have to pay great effort in cold-start problem. The heterogeneous network usually requires extra work to encode node types, as node type is not able to be identified by node ID. Node ID carries rare information, resulting in the criticism that the existing methods are not robust to noise. To address this issue, we introduce Compositional Network Embedding, a general inductive network representation learning framework that generates node embeddings by combining node features based on the principle of compositionally. Instead of directly optimizing an embedding lookup based on arbitrary node IDs, we learn a composition function that infers node embeddings by combining the corresponding node attribute embeddings through a graph-based loss. For evaluation, we conduct the experiments on link prediction under four different settings. The results verified the effectiveness and generalization ability of compositional network embeddings, especially on unseen nodes.


Measuring Compositionality in Representation Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many machine learning algorithms represent input data with vector embeddings or discrete codes. When inputs exhibit compositional structure (e.g. objects built from parts or procedures from subroutines), it is natural to ask whether this compositional structure is reflected in the the inputs' learned representations. While the assessment of compositionality in languages has received significant attention in linguistics and adjacent fields, the machine learning literature lacks general-purpose tools for producing graded measurements of compositional structure in more general (e.g. vector-valued) representation spaces. We describe a procedure for evaluating compositionality by measuring how well the true representation-producing model can be approximated by a model that explicitly composes a collection of inferred representational primitives. We use the procedure to provide formal and empirical characterizations of compositional structure in a variety of settings, exploring the relationship between compositionality and learning dynamics, human judgments, representational similarity, and generalization.


Composition and decomposition of GANs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this work, we propose a composition/decomposition framework for adversarially training generative models on composed data - data where each sample can be thought of as being constructed from a fixed number of components. In our framework, samples are generated by sampling components from component generators and feeding these components to a composition function which combines them into a "composed sample". This compositional training approach improves the modularity, extensibility and interpretability of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) - providing a principled way to incrementally construct complex models out of simpler component models, and allowing for explicit "division of responsibility" between these components. Using this framework, we define a family of learning tasks and evaluate their feasibility on two datasets in two different data modalities (image and text). Lastly, we derive sufficient conditions such that these compositional generative models are identifiable. Our work provides a principled approach to building on pre-trained generative models or for exploiting the compositional nature of data distributions to train extensible and interpretable models.


Learning Semantic Representations for Novel Words: Leveraging Both Form and Context

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Word embeddings are a key component of high-performing natural language processing (NLP) systems, but it remains a challenge to learn good representations for novel words on the fly, i.e., for words that did not occur in the training data. The general problem setting is that word embeddings are induced on an unlabeled training corpus and then a model is trained that embeds novel words into this induced embedding space. Currently, two approaches for learning embeddings of novel words exist: (i) learning an embedding from the novel word's surface-form (e.g., subword n-grams) and (ii) learning an embedding from the context in which it occurs. In this paper, we propose an architecture that leverages both sources of information - surface-form and context - and show that it results in large increases in embedding quality. Our architecture obtains state-of-the-art results on the Definitional Nonce and Contextual Rare Words datasets. As input, we only require an embedding set and an unlabeled corpus for training our architecture to produce embeddings appropriate for the induced embedding space. Thus, our model can easily be integrated into any existing NLP system and enhance its capability to handle novel words.


Neural Compositional Denotational Semantics for Question Answering

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Answering compositional questions requiring multi-step reasoning is challenging. We introduce an end-to-end differentiable model for interpreting questions about a knowledge graph (KG), which is inspired by formal approaches to semantics. Each span of text is represented by a denotation in a KG and a vector that captures ungrounded aspects of meaning. Learned composition modules recursively combine constituent spans, culminating in a grounding for the complete sentence which answers the question. For example, to interpret "not green", the model represents "green" as a set of KG entities and "not" as a trainable ungrounded vector---and then uses this vector to parameterize a composition function that performs a complement operation. For each sentence, we build a parse chart subsuming all possible parses, allowing the model to jointly learn both the composition operators and output structure by gradient descent from end-task supervision. The model learns a variety of challenging semantic operators, such as quantifiers, disjunctions and composed relations, and infers latent syntactic structure. It also generalizes well to longer questions than seen in its training data, in contrast to RNN, its tree-based variants, and semantic parsing baselines.


Visualisation and 'Diagnostic Classifiers' Reveal How Recurrent and Recursive Neural Networks Process Hierarchical Structure

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We investigate how neural networks can learn and process languages with hierarchical, compositional semantics. To this end, we define the artificial task of processing nested arithmetic expressions, and study whether different types of neural networks can learn to compute their meaning. We find that recursive neural networks can implement a generalising solution to this problem, and we visualise this solution by breaking it up in three steps: project, sum and squash. As a next step, we investigate recurrent neural networks, and show that a gated recurrent unit, that processes its input incrementally, also performs very well on this task: the network learns to predict the outcome of the arithmetic expressions with high accuracy, although performance deteriorates somewhat with increasing length. To develop an understanding of what the recurrent network encodes, visualisation techniques alone do not suffice. Therefore, we develop an approach where we formulate and test multiple hypotheses on the information encoded and processed by the network. For each hypothesis, we derive predictions about features of the hidden state representations at each time step, and train 'diagnostic classifiers' to test those predictions. Our results indicate that the networks follow a strategy similar to our hypothesised 'cumulative strategy', which explains the high accuracy of the network on novel expressions, the generalisation to longer expressions than seen in training, and the mild deterioration with increasing length. This in turn shows that diagnostic classifiers can be a useful technique for opening up the black box of neural networks. We argue that diagnostic classification, unlike most visualisation techniques, does scale up from small networks in a toy domain, to larger and deeper recurrent networks dealing with real-life data, and may therefore contribute to a better understanding of the internal dynamics of current state-of-the-art models in natural language processing.


Visualisation and 'Diagnostic Classifiers' Reveal How Recurrent and Recursive Neural Networks Process Hierarchical Structure

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We investigate how neural networks can learn and process languages with hierarchical, compositional semantics. To this end, we define the artificial task of processing nested arithmetic expressions, and study whether different types of neural networks can learn to compute their meaning. We find that recursive neural networks can implement a generalising solution to this problem, and we visualise this solution by breaking it up in three steps: project, sum and squash. As a next step, we investigate recurrent neural networks, and show that a gated recurrent unit, that processes its input incrementally, also performs very well on this task: the network learns to predict the outcome of the arithmetic expressions with high accuracy, although performance deteriorates somewhat with increasing length. To develop an understanding of what the recurrent network encodes, visualisation techniques alone do not suffice. Therefore, we develop an approach where we formulate and test multiple hypotheses on the information encoded and processed by the network. For each hypothesis, we derive predictions about features of the hidden state representations at each time step, and train 'diagnostic classifiers' to test those predictions. Our results indicate that the networks follow a strategy similar to our hypothesised 'cumulative strategy', which explains the high accuracy of the network on novel expressions, the generalisation to longer expressions than seen in training, and the mild deterioration with increasing length. This in turn shows that diagnostic classifiers can be a useful technique for opening up the black box of neural networks. We argue that diagnostic classification, unlike most visualisation techniques, does scale up from small networks in a toy domain, to larger and deeper recurrent networks dealing with real-life data, and may therefore contribute to a better understanding of the internal dynamics of current state-of-the-art models in natural language processing.


Visualisation and 'Diagnostic Classifiers' Reveal How Recurrent and Recursive Neural Networks Process Hierarchical Structure

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We investigate how neural networks can learn and process languages with hierarchical, compositional semantics. To this end, we define the artificial task of processing nested arithmetic expressions, and study whether different types of neural networks can learn to compute their meaning. We find that recursive neural networks can implement a generalising solution to this problem, and we visualise this solution by breaking it up in three steps: project, sum and squash. As a next step, we investigate recurrent neural networks, and show that a gated recurrent unit, that processes its input incrementally, also performs very well on this task: the network learns to predict the outcome of the arithmetic expressions with high accuracy, although performance deteriorates somewhat with increasing length. To develop an understanding of what the recurrent network encodes, visualisation techniques alone do not suffice. Therefore, we develop an approach where we formulate and test multiple hypotheses on the information encoded and processed by the network. For each hypothesis, we derive predictions about features of the hidden state representations at each time step, and train 'diagnostic classifiers' to test those predictions. Our results indicate that the networks follow a strategy similar to our hypothesised 'cumulative strategy', which explains the high accuracy of the network on novel expressions, the generalisation to longer expressions than seen in training, and the mild deterioration with increasing length. This in turn shows that diagnostic classifiers can be a useful technique for opening up the black box of neural networks. We argue that diagnostic classification, unlike most visualisation techniques, does scale up from small networks in a toy domain, to larger and deeper recurrent networks dealing with real-life data, and may therefore contribute to a better understanding of the internal dynamics of current state-of-the-art models in natural language processing.


Visualisation and 'Diagnostic Classifiers' Reveal How Recurrent and Recursive Neural Networks Process Hierarchical Structure

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We investigate how neural networks can learn and process languages with hierarchical, compositional semantics. To this end, we define the artificial task of processing nested arithmetic expressions, and study whether different types of neural networks can learn to compute their meaning. We find that recursive neural networks can implement a generalising solution to this problem, and we visualise this solution by breaking it up in three steps: project, sum and squash. As a next step, we investigate recurrent neural networks, and show that a gated recurrent unit, that processes its input incrementally, also performs very well on this task: the network learns to predict the outcome of the arithmetic expressions with high accuracy, although performance deteriorates somewhat with increasing length. To develop an understanding of what the recurrent network encodes, visualisation techniques alone do not suffice. Therefore, we develop an approach where we formulate and test multiple hypotheses on the information encoded and processed by the network. For each hypothesis, we derive predictions about features of the hidden state representations at each time step, and train 'diagnostic classifiers' to test those predictions. Our results indicate that the networks follow a strategy similar to our hypothesised 'cumulative strategy', which explains the high accuracy of the network on novel expressions, the generalisation to longer expressions than seen in training, and the mild deterioration with increasing length. This in turn shows that diagnostic classifiers can be a useful technique for opening up the black box of neural networks. We argue that diagnostic classification, unlike most visualisation techniques, does scale up from small networks in a toy domain, to larger and deeper recurrent networks dealing with real-life data, and may therefore contribute to a better understanding of the internal dynamics of current state-of-the-art models in natural language processing.