composition


The Amazing Ways Artificial Intelligence Is Transforming The Music Industry

#artificialintelligence

The days of debating if artificial intelligence (AI) will impact the music industry are over. Artificial intelligence is already used in many ways. Now it's time to consider how much it will influence how we create and consume music. Just as it does for other industries, in the music industry, AI automates services, discovers patterns and insights in enormous data sets, and helps create efficiencies. Companies in the music industry need to accept and prepare for how AI can transform business; those that won't will be left behind.


Chemical Patterns May Predict Stars That Host Giant Planets - Eos

#artificialintelligence

Does this star have a planet? A new algorithm could help astronomers predict, on the basis of a star's chemical fingerprint, whether that star will host a giant gaseous exoplanet. "It's like Netflix," Natalie Hinkel, a planetary astrophysicist at the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas, told Eos. Netflix "sees that you like goofy comedy, science fiction, and kung fu movies--a variety of different patterns" to predict whether you'll like a new movie. Likewise, her team's machine learning algorithm "will learn which elements are influential in deciding whether or not a star has a planet."


Declarative Learning-Based Programming as an Interface to AI Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Data-driven approaches are becoming more common as problem-solving techniques in many areas of research and industry. In most cases, machine learning models are the key component of these solutions, but a solution involves multiple such models, along with significant levels of reasoning with the models' output and input. Current technologies do not make such techniques easy to use for application experts who are not fluent in machine learning nor for machine learning experts who aim at testing ideas and models on real-world data in the context of the overall AI system. We review key efforts made by various AI communities to provide languages for high-level abstractions over learning and reasoning techniques needed for designing complex AI systems. We classify the existing frameworks based on the type of techniques and the data and knowledge representations they use, provide a comparative study of the way they address the challenges of programming real-world applications, and highlight some shortcomings and future directions.


Deep Music Analogy Via Latent Representation Disentanglement

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Analogy is a key solution to automated music generation, featured by its ability to generate both natural and creative pieces based on only a few examples. In general, an analogy is made by partially transferring the music abstractions, i.e., high-level representations and their relationships, from one piece to another; however, this procedure requires disentangling music representations, which takes little effort for musicians but is non-trivial for computers. Three sub-problems arise: extracting latent representations from the observation, disentangling the representations so that each part has a unique semantic interpretation, and mapping the latent representations back to actual music. An explicitly-constrained conditional variational auto-encoder (EC2-VAE) is proposed as a unified solution to all three sub-problems. In this study, we focus on disentangling the pitch and rhythm representations of 8-beat music clips conditioned on chords. In producing music analogies, this model helps us to realize the imaginary situation of "what if" a piece is composed using a different pitch contour, rhythm pattern, chord progression etc., by borrowing the representations from other pieces. Finally, we validate the proposed disentanglement method using objective measurements and evaluate the analogy examples by a subjective study.


Computing Exact Guarantees for Differential Privacy

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Quantification of the privacy loss associated with a randomised algorithm has become an active area of research and $(\varepsilon,\delta)$-differential privacy has arisen as the standard measure of it. We propose a numerical method for evaluating the parameters of differential privacy for algorithms with continuous one dimensional output. In this way the parameters $\varepsilon$ and $\delta$ can be evaluated, for example, for the subsampled multidimensional Gaussian mechanism which is also the underlying mechanism of differentially private stochastic gradient descent. The proposed method is based on a numerical approximation of an integral formula which gives the exact $(\varepsilon,\delta)$-values. The approximation is carried out by discretising the integral and by evaluating discrete convolutions using a fast Fourier transform algorithm. We give theoretical error bounds which show the convergence of the approximation and guarantee its accuracy to an arbitrary degree. Experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art techniques illustrate the efficacy of the method. Python code for the proposed method can be found in Github (https://github.com/DPBayes/PLD-Accountant/).


Transcoding compositionally: using attention to find more generalizable solutions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While sequence-to-sequence models have shown remarkable generalization power across several natural language tasks, their construct of solutions are argued to be less compositional than human-like generalization. In this paper, we present seq2attn, a new architecture that is specifically designed to exploit attention to find compositional patterns in the input. In seq2attn, the two standard components of an encoder-decoder model are connected via a transcoder, that modulates the information flow between them. We show that seq2attn can successfully generalize, without requiring any additional supervision, on two tasks which are specifically constructed to challenge the compositional skills of neural networks. The solutions found by the model are highly interpretable, allowing easy analysis of both the types of solutions that are found and potential causes for mistakes. We exploit this opportunity to introduce a new paradigm to test compositionality that studies the extent to which a model overgeneralizes when confronted with exceptions. We show that seq2attn exhibits such overgeneralization to a larger degree than a standard sequence-to-sequence model.


On the Realization of Compositionality in Neural Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a detailed comparison of two types of sequence to sequence models trained to conduct a compositional task. The models are architecturally identical at inference time, but differ in the way that they are trained: our baseline model is trained with a task-success signal only, while the other model receives additional supervision on its attention mechanism (Attentive Guidance), which has shown to be an effective method for encouraging more compositional solutions (Hupkes et al.,2019). We first confirm that the models with attentive guidance indeed infer more compositional solutions than the baseline, by training them on the lookup table task presented by Li\v{s}ka et al. (2019). We then do an in-depth analysis of the structural differences between the two model types, focusing in particular on the organisation of the parameter space and the hidden layer activations and find noticeable differences in both these aspects. Guided networks focus more on the components of the input rather than the sequence as a whole and develop small functional groups of neurons with specific purposes that use their gates more selectively. Results from parameter heat maps, component swapping and graph analysis also indicate that guided networks exhibit a more modular structure with a small number of specialized, strongly connected neurons.


NLSC: Unrestricted Natural Language-based Service Composition through Sentence Embeddings

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Current approaches for service composition (assemblies of atomic services) require developers to use: (a) domain-specific semantics to formalize services that restrict the vocabulary for their descriptions, and (b) translation mechanisms for service retrieval to convert unstructured user requests to strongly-typed semantic representations. In our work, we argue that effort to developing service descriptions, request translations, and matching mechanisms could be reduced using unrestricted natural language; allowing both: (1) end-users to intuitively express their needs using natural language, and (2) service developers to develop services without relying on syntactic/semantic description languages. Although there are some natural language-based service composition approaches, they restrict service retrieval to syntactic/semantic matching. With recent developments in Machine learning and Natural Language Processing, we motivate the use of Sentence Embeddings by leveraging richer semantic representations of sentences for service description, matching and retrieval. Experimental results show that service composition development effort may be reduced by more than 44\% while keeping a high precision/recall when matching high-level user requests with low-level service method invocations.


Relation Embedding with Dihedral Group in Knowledge Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Link prediction is critical for the application of incomplete knowledge graph (KG) in the downstream tasks. As a family of effective approaches for link predictions, embedding methods try to learn low-rank representations for both entities and relations such that the bilinear form defined therein is a well-behaved scoring function. Despite of their successful performances, existing bilinear forms overlook the modeling of relation compositions, resulting in lacks of interpretability for reasoning on KG. To fulfill this gap, we propose a new model called DihEdral, named after dihedral symmetry group. This new model learns knowledge graph embeddings that can capture relation compositions by nature. Furthermore, our approach models the relation embeddings parametrized by discrete values, thereby decrease the solution space drastically. Our experiments show that DihEdral is able to capture all desired properties such as (skew-) symmetry, inversion and (non-) Abelian composition, and outperforms existing bilinear form based approach and is comparable to or better than deep learning models such as ConvE.


Greedy inference with layers of lazy maps

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a framework for the greedy approximation of high-dimensional Bayesian inference problems, through the composition of multiple \emph{low-dimensional} transport maps or flows. Our framework operates recursively on a sequence of ``residual'' distributions, given by pulling back the posterior through the previously computed transport maps. The action of each map is confined to a low-dimensional subspace that we identify by minimizing an error bound. At each step, our approach thus identifies (i) a relevant subspace of the residual distribution, and (ii) a low-dimensional transformation between a restriction of the residual onto this subspace and a standard Gaussian. We prove weak convergence of the approach to the posterior distribution, and we demonstrate the algorithm on a range of challenging inference problems in differential equations and spatial statistics.