Both local plasma membrane bending, resulting from the physical contact with collagen fibers, and local integrin engagement triggered CCS accumulation on fibers. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that the CCSs engaged with collagen fibers adopted a distinct, tubular morphology to wrap around and pinch the fiber. Cell adhesion and the cell's capacity to grab collagen fibers were inhibited by disruption of TCALs or by inhibition of integrin accumulation at TCALs by using AP-2 and Dab2 siRNAs, respectively. FAs were mostly found at both extremities of elongated cells migrating in the 3D environment, whereas CCSs were distributed all over the plasma membrane of cellular protrusions.
Last week, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, the Palestinian Authority, and Turkey, as well as other nations and international organizations, gathered in Jordan to inaugurate the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) project. Having persevered through two decades of political and financial challenges, this complex machine is poised to run its first experiments this year. Indeed, SESAME represents the power of science in bringing together countries--even those with frayed relations--under a common goal of advancing knowledge for the benefit of all humankind. The triumph of SESAME, and the outpouring of research results from other light sources around the world, have spurred interest in building synchrotrons in developing countries.
Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys, we discovered a network centered in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that is exclusively engaged in social interaction analysis. Exclusivity of specialization was found for no other function anywhere in the brain. Two additional networks, a parieto-premotor and a temporal one, exhibited both social and physical interaction preference, which, in the temporal lobe, mapped onto a fine-grain pattern of object, body, and face selectivity. Extent and location of a dedicated system for social interaction analysis suggest that this function is an evolutionary forerunner of human mind-reading capabilities.
Computers can beat humans at games as complex as chess or go. In these and similar games, both players have access to the same information, as displayed on the board. Although computers have the ultimate poker face, it has been tricky to teach them to be good at poker, where players cannot see their opponents' cards.
Scientific discoveries and new technologies that aim to improve human health challenge our understanding of what it means to be human. Perceptions of being and the boundaries between humans and other species may be disrupted by our potential to manipulate genes and their expression, regulate cellular functions, and replace tissues to improve the quality of life. As we gain a greater understanding of genetic complexity, molecular mechanisms, and cellular and tissue functions, technologies aimed at modifications could, in theory, also be applied to enhance our physical and cognitive abilities. How can the normative and historical discourse about human identity help us decide if, how, and when to use genetic, stem cell, and reproductive technologies that may change characteristics of our cells and thus, perhaps, our individual and human identities (1)?
For decades, code devised by Shian-Jiann Lin, a scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has powered many of the United States's climate models. Now, his program, which describes with canny accuracy the swirl of air around the globe, will expand into a new domain: the short-term weather forecasts of the National Weather Service. By 2018, Lin's program will power a unified system for both climate and weather forecasting, one that could predict conditions tomorrow, or a century from now. It represents a coming merger between weather and climate scientists, who have discovered common ground in seeking rapid progress on "subseasonal to seasonal" predictions--forecasts from a month to 2 years out.
Some giant viruses encode a genome larger than that of some bacteria, but their evolutionary history is a mystery. Examining the genomes within a sample from a wastewater treatment plant in Austria, Schulz et al. assembled a previously undiscovered giant virus genome, which they used to mine genetic databases for related viruses. The authors thus identified a group of giant viruses with more genes encoding components of the protein translation machinery, including aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetases, than in other giant viruses.
In the Report "Neural mechanisms for lexical processing in dogs," the directions left and right were inadvertently switched in reporting the results from dogs' brains. This was caused by an error in interpreting the coordinates of MRI images, specifically in the process of accounting for the different body positions of humans and dogs in the MRI scanner. This error does not affect the main conclusions of the paper. The HTML and PDF versions have been corrected.
This behavior is more complicated than just producing inspiration, as breathing is integrated with many other motor functions such as vocalization, orofacial motor behaviors, emotional expression (laughing and crying), and locomotion (1, 2). Conscious breathing during yoga, meditation, or psychotherapy can modulate emotion, arousal state, or stress (3). Therefore, understanding the links between breathing behavior, brain arousal state, and higher-order brain activity is of great interest. This finding provides new insight into how the motor act of breathing can influence higher-order brain functions.