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Collaborating Authors

Yang, Zichao


Dense-to-Sparse Gate for Mixture-of-Experts

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Mixture-of-experts (MoE) is becoming popular due to its success in improving the model quality, especially in Transformers. By routing tokens with a sparse gate to a few experts that each only contains part of the full model, MoE keeps the model size unchanged and significantly reduces per-token computation, which effectively scales neural networks. However, we found that the current approach of jointly training experts and the sparse gate introduces a negative impact on model accuracy, diminishing the efficiency of expensive large-scale model training. In this work, we proposed Dense-To-Sparse gate (DTS-Gate) for MoE training. Specifically, instead of using a permanent sparse gate, DTS-Gate begins as a dense gate that routes tokens to all experts, then gradually and adaptively becomes sparser while routes to fewer experts. MoE with DTS-Gate naturally decouples the training of experts and the sparse gate by training all experts at first and then learning the sparse gate. Experiments show that compared with the state-of-the-art Switch-Gate in GPT-MoE(1.5B) model with OpenWebText dataset(40GB), DTS-Gate can obtain 2.0x speed-up to reach the same validation perplexity, as well as higher FLOPs-efficiency of a 1.42x speed-up.


Don't Take It Literally: An Edit-Invariant Sequence Loss for Text Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neural text generation models are typically trained by maximizing log-likelihood with the sequence cross entropy loss, which encourages an exact token-by-token match between a target sequence with a generated sequence. Such training objective is sub-optimal when the target sequence not perfect, e.g., when the target sequence is corrupted with noises, or when only weak sequence supervision is available. To address this challenge, we propose a novel Edit-Invariant Sequence Loss (EISL), which computes the matching loss of a target n-gram with all n-grams in the generated sequence. EISL draws inspirations from convolutional networks (ConvNets) which are shift-invariant to images, hence is robust to the shift of n-grams to tolerate edits in the target sequences. Moreover, the computation of EISL is essentially a convolution operation with target n-grams as kernels, which is easy to implement with existing libraries. To demonstrate the effectiveness of EISL, we conduct experiments on three tasks: machine translation with noisy target sequences, unsupervised text style transfer, and non-autoregressive machine translation. Experimental results show our method significantly outperforms cross entropy loss on these three tasks.


Deep Generative Models with Learnable Knowledge Constraints

Neural Information Processing Systems

The broad set of deep generative models (DGMs) has achieved remarkable advances. However, it is often difficult to incorporate rich structured domain knowledge with the end-to-end DGMs. Posterior regularization (PR) offers a principled framework to impose structured constraints on probabilistic models, but has limited applicability to the diverse DGMs that can lack a Bayesian formulation or even explicit density evaluation. PR also requires constraints to be fully specified {\it a priori}, which is impractical or suboptimal for complex knowledge with learnable uncertain parts. In this paper, we establish mathematical correspondence between PR and reinforcement learning (RL), and, based on the connection, expand PR to learn constraints as the extrinsic reward in RL.


Unsupervised Text Style Transfer using Language Models as Discriminators

Neural Information Processing Systems

Binary classifiers are employed as discriminators in GAN-based unsupervised style transfer models to ensure that transferred sentences are similar to sentences in the target domain. One difficulty with the binary discriminator is that error signal is sometimes insufficient to train the model to produce rich-structured language. In this paper, we propose a technique of using a target domain language model as the discriminator to provide richer, token-level feedback during the learning process. Because our language model scores sentences directly using a product of locally normalized probabilities, it offers more stable and more useful training signal to the generator. We train the generator to minimize the negative log likelihood (NLL) of generated sentences evaluated by a language model.


Multimodal Intelligence: Representation Learning, Information Fusion, and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep learning has revolutionized speech recognition, image recognition, and natural language processing since 2010, each involving a single modality in the input signal. However, many applications in artificial intelligence involve more than one modality. It is therefore of broad interest to study the more difficult and complex problem of modeling and learning across multiple modalities. In this paper, a technical review of the models and learning methods for multimodal intelligence is provided. The main focus is the combination of vision and natural language, which has become an important area in both computer vision and natural language processing research communities. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of recent work on multimodal deep learning from three new angles - learning multimodal representations, the fusion of multimodal signals at various levels, and multimodal applications. On multimodal representation learning, we review the key concept of embedding, which unifies the multimodal signals into the same vector space and thus enables cross-modality signal processing. We also review the properties of the many types of embedding constructed and learned for general downstream tasks. On multimodal fusion, this review focuses on special architectures for the integration of the representation of unimodal signals for a particular task. On applications, selected areas of a broad interest in current literature are covered, including caption generation, text-to-image generation, and visual question answering. We believe this review can facilitate future studies in the emerging field of multimodal intelligence for the community.


Toward Unsupervised Text Content Manipulation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Controlled generation of text is of high practical use. Recent efforts have made impressive progress in generating or editing sentences with given textual attributes (e.g., sentiment). This work studies a new practical setting of text content manipulation. Given a structured record, such as `(PLAYER: Lebron, POINTS: 20, ASSISTS: 10)', and a reference sentence, such as `Kobe easily dropped 30 points', we aim to generate a sentence that accurately describes the full content in the record, with the same writing style (e.g., wording, transitions) of the reference. The problem is unsupervised due to lack of parallel data in practice, and is challenging to minimally yet effectively manipulate the text (by rewriting/adding/deleting text portions) to ensure fidelity to the structured content. We derive a dataset from a basketball game report corpus as our testbed, and develop a neural method with unsupervised competing objectives and explicit content coverage constraints. Automatic and human evaluations show superiority of our approach over competitive methods including a strong rule-based baseline and prior approaches designed for style transfer.


Deep Generative Models with Learnable Knowledge Constraints

Neural Information Processing Systems

The broad set of deep generative models (DGMs) has achieved remarkable advances. However, it is often difficult to incorporate rich structured domain knowledge with the end-to-end DGMs. Posterior regularization (PR) offers a principled framework to impose structured constraints on probabilistic models, but has limited applicability to the diverse DGMs that can lack a Bayesian formulation or even explicit density evaluation. PR also requires constraints to be fully specified {\it a priori}, which is impractical or suboptimal for complex knowledge with learnable uncertain parts. In this paper, we establish mathematical correspondence between PR and reinforcement learning (RL), and, based on the connection, expand PR to learn constraints as the extrinsic reward in RL. The resulting algorithm is model-agnostic to apply to any DGMs, and is flexible to adapt arbitrary constraints with the model jointly. Experiments on human image generation and templated sentence generation show models with learned knowledge constraints by our algorithm greatly improve over base generative models.


Deep Generative Models with Learnable Knowledge Constraints

Neural Information Processing Systems

The broad set of deep generative models (DGMs) has achieved remarkable advances. However, it is often difficult to incorporate rich structured domain knowledge with the end-to-end DGMs. Posterior regularization (PR) offers a principled framework to impose structured constraints on probabilistic models, but has limited applicability to the diverse DGMs that can lack a Bayesian formulation or even explicit density evaluation. PR also requires constraints to be fully specified {\it a priori}, which is impractical or suboptimal for complex knowledge with learnable uncertain parts. In this paper, we establish mathematical correspondence between PR and reinforcement learning (RL), and, based on the connection, expand PR to learn constraints as the extrinsic reward in RL. The resulting algorithm is model-agnostic to apply to any DGMs, and is flexible to adapt arbitrary constraints with the model jointly. Experiments on human image generation and templated sentence generation show models with learned knowledge constraints by our algorithm greatly improve over base generative models.


Unsupervised Text Style Transfer using Language Models as Discriminators

Neural Information Processing Systems

Binary classifiers are often employed as discriminators in GAN-based unsupervised style transfer systems to ensure that transferred sentences are similar to sentences in the target domain. One difficulty with this approach is that the error signal provided by the discriminator can be unstable and is sometimes insufficient to train the generator to produce fluent language. In this paper, we propose a new technique that uses a target domain language model as the discriminator, providing richer and more stable token-level feedback during the learning process. We train the generator to minimize the negative log likelihood (NLL) of generated sentences, evaluated by the language model. By using a continuous approximation of discrete sampling under the generator, our model can be trained using back-propagation in an end-to-end fashion. Moreover, our empirical results show that when using a language model as a structured discriminator, it is possible to forgo adversarial steps during training, making the process more stable. We compare our model with previous work that uses convolutional networks (CNNs) as discriminators, as well as a broad set of other approaches. Results show that the proposed method achieves improved performance on three tasks: word substitution decipherment, sentiment modification, and related language translation.


Unsupervised Text Style Transfer using Language Models as Discriminators

Neural Information Processing Systems

Binary classifiers are employed as discriminators in GAN-based unsupervised style transfer models to ensure that transferred sentences are similar to sentences in the target domain. One difficulty with the binary discriminator is that error signal is sometimes insufficient to train the model to produce rich-structured language. In this paper, we propose a technique of using a target domain language model as the discriminator to provide richer, token-level feedback during the learning process. Because our language model scores sentences directly using a product of locally normalized probabilities, it offers more stable and more useful training signal to the generator. We train the generator to minimize the negative log likelihood (NLL) of generated sentences evaluated by a language model. By using continuous approximation of the discrete samples, our model can be trained using back-propagation in an end-to-end way. Moreover, we find empirically with a language model as a structured discriminator, it is possible to eliminate the adversarial training steps using negative samples, thus making training more stable. We compare our model with previous work using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as discriminators and show our model outperforms them significantly in three tasks including word substitution decipherment, sentiment modification and related language translation.