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Collaborating Authors

Srinivasan, Srivatsan


Output-Constrained Bayesian Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bayesian neural network (BNN) priors are defined in parameter space, making it hard to encode prior knowledge expressed in function space. We formulate a prior that incorporates functional constraints about what the output can or cannot be in regions of the input space. Output-Constrained BNNs (OC-BNN) represent an interpretable approach of enforcing a range of constraints, fully consistent with the Bayesian framework and amenable to black-box inference. We demonstrate how OC-BNNs improve model robustness and prevent the prediction of infeasible outputs in two real-world applications of healthcare and robotics.


Truly Batch Apprenticeship Learning with Deep Successor Features

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce a novel apprenticeship learning algorithm to learn an expert's underlying reward structure in off-policy model-free \emph{batch} settings. Unlike existing methods that require a dynamics model or additional data acquisition for on-policy evaluation, our algorithm requires only the batch data of observed expert behavior. Such settings are common in real-world tasks---health care, finance or industrial processes ---where accurate simulators do not exist or data acquisition is costly. To address challenges in batch settings, we introduce Deep Successor Feature Networks(DSFN) that estimate feature expectations in an off-policy setting and a transition-regularized imitation network that produces a near-expert initial policy and an efficient feature representation. Our algorithm achieves superior results in batch settings on both control benchmarks and a vital clinical task of sepsis management in the Intensive Care Unit.


Evaluating Reinforcement Learning Algorithms in Observational Health Settings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Much attention has been devoted recently to the development of machine learning algorithms with the goal of improving treatment policies in healthcare. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a sub-field within machine learning that is concerned with learning how to make sequences of decisions so as to optimize long-term effects. Already, RL algorithms have been proposed to identify decision-making strategies for mechanical ventilation, sepsis management and treatment of schizophrenia. However, before implementing treatment policies learned by black-box algorithms in high-stakes clinical decision problems, special care must be taken in the evaluation of these policies. In this document, our goal is to expose some of the subtleties associated with evaluating RL algorithms in healthcare. We aim to provide a conceptual starting point for clinical and computational researchers to ask the right questions when designing and evaluating algorithms for new ways of treating patients. In the following, we describe how choices about how to summarize a history, variance of statistical estimators, and confounders in more ad-hoc measures can result in unreliable, even misleading estimates of the quality of a treatment policy. We also provide suggestions for mitigating these effects---for while there is much promise for mining observational health data to uncover better treatment policies, evaluation must be performed thoughtfully.