If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
We present an Automatic Relevance Determination prior Bayesian Neural Network(BNN-ARD) weight l2-norm measure as a feature importance statistic for the model-x knockoff filter. We show on both simulated data and the Norwegian wind farm dataset that the proposed feature importance statistic yields statistically significant improvements relative to similar feature importance measures in both variable selection power and predictive performance on a real world dataset.
Muller, Daniel, Marwala, Tshilidzi
The famous St Petersburg Paradox shows that the theory of expected value does not capture the real-world economics of decision-making problem. Over the years, many economic theories were developed to resolve the paradox and explain the subjective utility of the expected outcomes and risk aversion. In this paper, we use the concept of the net utility to resolve the St Petersburg paradox. The reason why the principle of absolute instead of net utility does not work is because it is a first order approximation of some unknown utility function. Because the net utility concept is able to explain both behavioral economics and the St Petersburg paradox it is deemed a universal approach to handling utility. Finally, this paper explored how artificial intelligent (AI) agent will make choices and observed that if AI agent uses the nominal utility approach it will see infinite reward while if it uses the net utility approach it will see the limited reward that human beings see.
Credit risk modelling is an integral part of the global financial system. While there has been great attention paid to neural network models for credit default prediction, such models often lack the required interpretation mechanisms and measures of the uncertainty around their predictions. This work develops and compares Bayesian Neural Networks(BNNs) for credit card default modelling. This includes a BNNs trained by Gaussian approximation and the first implementation of BNNs trained by Hybrid Monte Carlo(HMC) in credit risk modelling. The results on the Taiwan Credit Dataset show that BNNs with Automatic Relevance Determination(ARD) outperform normal BNNs without ARD. The results also show that BNNs trained by Gaussian approximation display similar predictive performance to those trained by the HMC. The results further show that BNN with ARD can be used to draw inferences about the relative importance of different features thus critically aiding decision makers in explaining model output to consumers. The robustness of this result is reinforced by high levels of congruence between the features identified as important using the two different approaches for training BNNs.
Rational decision making in its linguistic description means making logical decisions. In essence, a rational agent optimally processes all relevant information to achieve its goal. Rationality has two elements and these are the use of relevant information and the efficient processing of such information. In reality, relevant information is incomplete, imperfect and the processing engine, which is a brain for humans, is suboptimal. Humans are risk averse rather than utility maximizers. In the real world, problems are predominantly non-convex and this makes the idea of rational decision-making fundamentally unachievable and Herbert Simon called this bounded rationality. There is a trade-off between the amount of information used for decision-making and the complexity of the decision model used. This explores whether machine rationality is subjective and concludes that indeed it is.
This paper studies whether rationality can be computed. Rationality is defined as the use of complete information, which is processed with a perfect biological or physical brain, in an optimized fashion. To compute rationality one needs to quantify how complete is the information, how perfect is the physical or biological brain and how optimized is the entire decision making system. The rationality of a model (i.e. physical or biological brain) is measured by the expected accuracy of the model. The rationality of the optimization procedure is measured as the ratio of the achieved objective (i.e. utility) to the global objective. The overall rationality of a decision is measured as the product of the rationality of the model and the rationality of the optimization procedure. The conclusion reached is that rationality can be computed for convex optimization problems.
This paper studies the question on whether machines can be rational. It observes the existing reasons why humans are not rational which is due to imperfect and limited information, limited and inconsistent processing power through the brain and the inability to optimize decisions and achieve maximum utility. It studies whether these limitations of humans are transferred to the limitations of machines. The conclusion reached is that even though machines are not rational advances in technological developments make these machines more rational. It also concludes that machines can be more rational than humans.
Marwala, Tshilidzi, Xing, Bo
It is undeniable that artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain concepts are spreading at a phenomenal rate. Both technologies have distinct degree of technological complexity and multi-dimensional business implications. However, a common misunderstanding about blockchain concept, in particular, is that blockchain is decentralized and is not controlled by anyone. But the underlying development of a blockchain system is still attributed to a cluster of core developers. Take smart contract as an example, it is essentially a collection of codes (or functions) and data (or states) that are programmed and deployed on a blockchain (say, Ethereum) by different human programmers. It is thus, unfortunately, less likely to be free of loopholes and flaws. In this article, through a brief overview about how artificial intelligence could be used to deliver bug-free smart contract so as to achieve the goal of blockchain 2.0, we to emphasize that the blockchain implementation can be assisted or enhanced via various AI techniques. The alliance of AI and blockchain is expected to create numerous possibilities.
Xing, Bo, Marwala, Tshilidzi
This paper describes the application of artificial intelligence to the creation of digital art. AI is a computational paradigm that codifies intelligence into machines. There are generally three types of artificial intelligence and these are machine learning, evolutionary programming and soft computing. Machine learning is the statistical approach to building intelligent systems. Evolutionary programming is the use of natural evolutionary systems to design intelligent machines. Some of the evolutionary programming systems include genetic algorithm which is inspired by the principles of evolution and swarm optimization which is inspired by the swarming of birds, fish, ants etc. Soft computing includes techniques such as agent based modelling and fuzzy logic. Opportunities on the applications of these to digital art are explored.
Leke, Collins, Marwala, Tshilidzi
In this paper, we examine the problem of missing data in high-dimensional datasets by taking into consideration the Missing Completely at Random and Missing at Random mechanisms, as well as theArbitrary missing pattern. Additionally, this paper employs a methodology based on Deep Learning and Swarm Intelligence algorithms in order to provide reliable estimates for missing data. The deep learning technique is used to extract features from the input data via an unsupervised learning approach by modeling the data distribution based on the input. This deep learning technique is then used as part of the objective function for the swarm intelligence technique in order to estimate the missing data after a supervised fine-tuning phase by minimizing an error function based on the interrelationship and correlation between features in the dataset. The investigated methodology in this paper therefore has longer running times, however, the promising potential outcomes justify the trade-off. Also, basic knowledge of statistics is presumed.
In this paper, we propose a new methodology based on the Negative Selection Algorithm that belongs to the field of Computational Intelligence, specifically, Artificial Immune Systems to identify takeover targets. Although considerable research based on customary statistical techniques and some contemporary Computational Intelligence techniques have been devoted to identify takeover targets, most of the existing studies are based upon multiple previous mergers and acquisitions. Contrary to previous research, the novelty of this proposal lies in its ability to suggest takeover targets for novice firms that are at the beginning of their merger and acquisition spree. We first discuss the theoretical perspective and then provide a case study with details for practical implementation, both capitalizing from unique generalization capabilities of artificial immune systems algorithms.