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Liu, Sijia


Certifiably Robust Interpretation via Renyi Differential Privacy

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Motivated by the recent discovery that the interpretation maps of CNNs could easily be manipulated by adversarial attacks against network interpretability, we study the problem of interpretation robustness from a new perspective of \Renyi differential privacy (RDP). The advantages of our Renyi-Robust-Smooth (RDP-based interpretation method) are three-folds. First, it can offer provable and certifiable top-$k$ robustness. That is, the top-$k$ important attributions of the interpretation map are provably robust under any input perturbation with bounded $\ell_d$-norm (for any $d\geq 1$, including $d = \infty$). Second, our proposed method offers $\sim10\%$ better experimental robustness than existing approaches in terms of the top-$k$ attributions. Remarkably, the accuracy of Renyi-Robust-Smooth also outperforms existing approaches. Third, our method can provide a smooth tradeoff between robustness and computational efficiency. Experimentally, its top-$k$ attributions are {\em twice} more robust than existing approaches when the computational resources are highly constrained.


Sanity Checks for Lottery Tickets: Does Your Winning Ticket Really Win the Jackpot?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There have been long-standing controversies and inconsistencies over the experiment setup and criteria for identifying the "winning ticket" in literature. To reconcile such, we revisit the definition of lottery ticket hypothesis, with comprehensive and more rigorous conditions. Under our new definition, we show concrete evidence to clarify whether the winning ticket exists across the major DNN architectures and/or applications. Through extensive experiments, we perform quantitative analysis on the correlations between winning tickets and various experimental factors, and empirically study the patterns of our observations. We find that the key training hyperparameters, such as learning rate and training epochs, as well as the architecture characteristics such as capacities and residual connections, are all highly correlated with whether and when the winning tickets can be identified. Based on our analysis, we summarize a guideline for parameter settings in regards of specific architecture characteristics, which we hope to catalyze the research progress on the topic of lottery ticket hypothesis.


A Compression-Compilation Framework for On-mobile Real-time BERT Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Transformer-based deep learning models have increasingly demonstrated high accuracy on many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. In this paper, we propose a compression-compilation co-design framework that can guarantee the identified model to meet both resource and real-time specifications of mobile devices. Our framework applies a compiler-aware neural architecture optimization method (CANAO), which can generate the optimal compressed model that balances both accuracy and latency. We are able to achieve up to 7.8x speedup compared with TensorFlow-Lite with only minor accuracy loss. We present two types of BERT applications on mobile devices: Question Answering (QA) and Text Generation. Both can be executed in real-time with latency as low as 45ms. Videos for demonstrating the framework can be found on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WIRvK_2PZI


On Fast Adversarial Robustness Adaptation in Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Model-agnostic meta-learning (MAML) has emerged as one of the most successful meta-learning techniques in few-shot learning. It enables us to learn a meta-initialization} of model parameters (that we call meta-model) to rapidly adapt to new tasks using a small amount of labeled training data. Despite the generalization power of the meta-model, it remains elusive that how adversarial robustness can be maintained by MAML in few-shot learning. In addition to generalization, robustness is also desired for a meta-model to defend adversarial examples (attacks). Toward promoting adversarial robustness in MAML, we first study WHEN a robustness-promoting regularization should be incorporated, given the fact that MAML adopts a bi-level (fine-tuning vs. meta-update) learning procedure. We show that robustifying the meta-update stage is sufficient to make robustness adapted to the task-specific fine-tuning stage even if the latter uses a standard training protocol. We also make additional justification on the acquired robustness adaptation by peering into the interpretability of neurons' activation maps. Furthermore, we investigate HOW robust regularization can efficiently be designed in MAML. We propose a general but easily-optimized robustness-regularized meta-learning framework, which allows the use of unlabeled data augmentation, fast adversarial attack generation, and computationally-light fine-tuning. In particular, we for the first time show that the auxiliary contrastive learning task can enhance the adversarial robustness of MAML. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods in robust few-shot learning.


Lottery Ticket Implies Accuracy Degradation, Is It a Desirable Phenomenon?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In deep model compression, the recent finding "Lottery Ticket Hypothesis" (LTH) (Frankle & Carbin, 2018) pointed out that there could exist a winning ticket (i.e., a properly pruned sub-network together with original weight initialization) that can achieve competitive performance than the original dense network. However, it is not easy to observe such winning property in many scenarios, where for example, a relatively large learning rate is used even if it benefits training the original dense model. In this work, we investigate the underlying condition and rationale behind the winning property, and find that the underlying reason is largely attributed to the correlation between initialized weights and final-trained weights when the learning rate is not sufficiently large. Thus, the existence of winning property is correlated with an insufficient DNN pretraining, and is unlikely to occur for a well-trained DNN. To overcome this limitation, we propose the "pruning & fine-tuning" method that consistently outperforms lottery ticket sparse training under the same pruning algorithm and the same total training epochs. Extensive experiments over multiple deep models (VGG, ResNet, MobileNet-v2) on different datasets have been conducted to justify our proposals.


Fast Training of Provably Robust Neural Networks by SingleProp

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent works have developed several methods of defending neural networks against adversarial attacks with certified guarantees. However, these techniques can be computationally costly due to the use of certification during training. We develop a new regularizer that is both more efficient than existing certified defenses, requiring only one additional forward propagation through a network, and can be used to train networks with similar certified accuracy. Through experiments on MNIST and CIFAR-10 we demonstrate improvements in training speed and comparable certified accuracy compared to state-of-the-art certified defenses.


Achieving Real-Time LiDAR 3D Object Detection on a Mobile Device

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

3D object detection is an important task, especially in the autonomous driving application domain. However, it is challenging to support the real-time performance with the limited computation and memory resources on edge-computing devices in self-driving cars. To achieve this, we propose a compiler-aware unified framework incorporating network enhancement and pruning search with the reinforcement learning techniques, to enable real-time inference of 3D object detection on the resource-limited edge-computing devices. Specifically, a generator Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is employed to provide the unified scheme for both network enhancement and pruning search automatically, without human expertise and assistance. And the evaluated performance of the unified schemes can be fed back to train the generator RNN. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed framework firstly achieves real-time 3D object detection on mobile devices (Samsung Galaxy S20 phone) with competitive detection performance.


Zeroth-Order Hybrid Gradient Descent: Towards A Principled Black-Box Optimization Framework

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this work, we focus on the study of stochastic zeroth-order (ZO) optimization which does not require first-order gradient information and uses only function evaluations. The problem of ZO optimization has emerged in many recent machine learning applications, where the gradient of the objective function is either unavailable or difficult to compute. In such cases, we can approximate the full gradients or stochastic gradients through function value based gradient estimates. Here, we propose a novel hybrid gradient estimator (HGE), which takes advantage of the query-efficiency of random gradient estimates as well as the variance-reduction of coordinate-wise gradient estimates. We show that with a graceful design in coordinate importance sampling, the proposed HGE-based ZO optimization method is efficient both in terms of iteration complexity as well as function query cost. We provide a thorough theoretical analysis of the convergence of our proposed method for non-convex, convex, and strongly-convex optimization. We show that the convergence rate that we derive generalizes the results for some prominent existing methods in the nonconvex case, and matches the optimal result in the convex case. We also corroborate the theory with a real-world black-box attack generation application to demonstrate the empirical advantage of our method over state-of-the-art ZO optimization approaches.


Self-Progressing Robust Training

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Enhancing model robustness under new and even adversarial environments is a crucial milestone toward building trustworthy machine learning systems. Current robust training methods such as adversarial training explicitly uses an "attack" (e.g., $\ell_{\infty}$-norm bounded perturbation) to generate adversarial examples during model training for improving adversarial robustness. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a new framework called SPROUT, self-progressing robust training. During model training, SPROUT progressively adjusts training label distribution via our proposed parametrized label smoothing technique, making training free of attack generation and more scalable. We also motivate SPROUT using a general formulation based on vicinity risk minimization, which includes many robust training methods as special cases. Compared with state-of-the-art adversarial training methods (PGD-l_inf and TRADES) under l_inf-norm bounded attacks and various invariance tests, SPROUT consistently attains superior performance and is more scalable to large neural networks. Our results shed new light on scalable, effective and attack-independent robust training methods.


6.7ms on Mobile with over 78% ImageNet Accuracy: Unified Network Pruning and Architecture Search for Beyond Real-Time Mobile Acceleration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the increasing demand to efficiently deploy DNNs on mobile edge devices, it becomes much more important to reduce unnecessary computation and increase the execution speed. Prior methods towards this goal, including model compression and network architecture search (NAS), are largely performed independently and do not fully consider compiler-level optimizations which is a must-do for mobile acceleration. In this work, we first propose (i) a general category of fine-grained structured pruning applicable to various DNN layers, and (ii) a comprehensive, compiler automatic code generation framework supporting different DNNs and different pruning schemes, which bridge the gap of model compression and NAS. We further propose NPAS, a compiler-aware unified network pruning, and architecture search. To deal with large search space, we propose a meta-modeling procedure based on reinforcement learning with fast evaluation and Bayesian optimization, ensuring the total number of training epochs comparable with representative NAS frameworks. Our framework achieves 6.7ms, 5.9ms, 3.9ms ImageNet inference times with 78.2%, 75% (MobileNet-V3 level), and 71% (MobileNet-V2 level) Top-1 accuracy respectively on an off-the-shelf mobile phone, consistently outperforming prior work.