Collaborating Authors

Lamma, Evelina

Non-ground Abductive Logic Programming with Probabilistic Integrity Constraints Artificial Intelligence

Uncertain information is being taken into account in an increasing number of application fields. In the meantime, abduction has been proved a powerful tool for handling hypothetical reasoning and incomplete knowledge. Probabilistic logical models are a suitable framework to handle uncertain information, and in the last decade many probabilistic logical languages have been proposed, as well as inference and learning systems for them. In the realm of Abductive Logic Programming (ALP), a variety of proof procedures have been defined as well. In this paper, we consider a richer logic language, coping with probabilistic abduction with variables. In particular, we consider an ALP program enriched with integrity constraints `a la IFF, possibly annotated with a probability value. We first present the overall abductive language, and its semantics according to the Distribution Semantics. We then introduce a proof procedure, obtained by extending one previously presented, and prove its soundness and completeness.

A Framework for Reasoning on Probabilistic Description Logics Artificial Intelligence

While there exist several reasoners for Description Logics, very few of them can cope with uncertainty. BUNDLE is an inference framework that can exploit several OWL (non-probabilistic) reasoners to perform inference over Probabilistic Description Logics. In this chapter, we report the latest advances implemented in BUNDLE. In particular, BUNDLE can now interface with the reasoners of the TRILL system, thus providing a uniform method to execute probabilistic queries using different settings. BUNDLE can be easily extended and can be used either as a standalone desktop application or as a library in OWL API-based applications that need to reason over Probabilistic Description Logics. The reasoning performance heavily depends on the reasoner and method used to compute the probability. We provide a comparison of the different reasoning settings on several datasets.

Automatic Setting of DNN Hyper-Parameters by Mixing Bayesian Optimization and Tuning Rules Machine Learning

Deep learning techniques play an increasingly important role in industrial and research environments due to their outstanding results. However, the large number of hyper-parameters to be set may lead to errors if they are set manually. The state-of-the-art hyper-parameters tuning methods are grid search, random search, and Bayesian Optimization. The first two methods are expensive because they try, respectively, all possible combinations and random combinations of hyper-parameters. Bayesian Optimization, instead, builds a surrogate model of the objective function, quantifies the uncertainty in the surrogate using Gaussian Process Regression and uses an acquisition function to decide where to sample the new set of hyper-parameters. This work faces the field of Hyper-Parameters Optimization (HPO). The aim is to improve Bayesian Optimization applied to Deep Neural Networks. For this goal, we build a new algorithm for evaluating and analyzing the results of the network on the training and validation sets and use a set of tuning rules to add new hyper-parameters and/or to reduce the hyper-parameter search space to select a better combination.

Probabilistic DL Reasoning with Pinpointing Formulas: A Prolog-based Approach Artificial Intelligence

When modeling real world domains we have to deal with information that is incomplete or that comes from sources with different trust levels. This motivates the need for managing uncertainty in the Semantic Web. To this purpose, we introduced a probabilistic semantics, named DISPONTE, in order to combine description logics with probability theory. The probability of a query can be then computed from the set of its explanations by building a Binary Decision Diagram (BDD). The set of explanations can be found using the tableau algorithm, which has to handle non-determinism. Prolog, with its efficient handling of non-determinism, is suitable for implementing the tableau algorithm. TRILL and TRILLP are systems offering a Prolog implementation of the tableau algorithm. TRILLP builds a pinpointing formula, that compactly represents the set of explanations and can be directly translated into a BDD. Both reasoners were shown to outperform state-of-the-art DL reasoners. In this paper, we present an improvement of TRILLP, named TORNADO, in which the BDD is directly built during the construction of the tableau, further speeding up the overall inference process. An experimental comparison shows the effectiveness of TORNADO. All systems can be tried online in the TRILL on SWISH web application at

Reasoning with Probabilistic Ontologies

AAAI Conferences

Modeling real world domains requires ever more frequently to represent uncertain information. The DISPONTE semantics for probabilistic description logics allows to annotate axioms of a knowledge base with a value that represents their probability. In this paper we discuss approaches for performing inference from probabilistic ontologies following the DISPONTE semantics. We present the algorithm BUNDLE for computing the probability of queries. BUNDLE exploits an underlying Description Logic reasoner, such as Pellet, in order to find explanations for a query. These are then encoded in a Binary Decision Diagram that is used for computing the probability of the query.

Lifted Variable Elimination for Probabilistic Logic Programming Artificial Intelligence

Lifted inference has been proposed for various probabilistic logical frameworks in order to compute the probability of queries in a time that depends on the size of the domains of the random variables rather than the number of instances. Even if various authors have underlined its importance for probabilistic logic programming (PLP), lifted inference has been applied up to now only to relational languages outside of logic programming. In this paper we adapt Generalized Counting First Order Variable Elimination (GC-FOVE) to the problem of computing the probability of queries to probabilistic logic programs under the distribution semantics. In particular, we extend the Prolog Factor Language (PFL) to include two new types of factors that are needed for representing ProbLog programs. These factors take into account the existing causal independence relationships among random variables and are managed by the extension to variable elimination proposed by Zhang and Poole for dealing with convergent variables and heterogeneous factors. Two new operators are added to GC-FOVE for treating heterogeneous factors. The resulting algorithm, called LP$^2$ for Lifted Probabilistic Logic Programming, has been implemented by modifying the PFL implementation of GC-FOVE and tested on three benchmarks for lifted inference. A comparison with PITA and ProbLog2 shows the potential of the approach.