Sensoy, Murat, Kaplan, Lance, Kandemir, Melih

Deterministic neural nets have been shown to learn effective predictors on a wide range of machine learning problems. However, as the standard approach is to train the network to minimize a prediction loss, the resultant model remains ignorant to its prediction confidence. Orthogonally to Bayesian neural nets that indirectly infer prediction uncertainty through weight uncertainties, we propose explicit modeling of the same using the theory of subjective logic. By placing a Dirichlet distribution on the class probabilities, we treat predictions of a neural net as subjective opinions and learn the function that collects the evidence leading to these opinions by a deterministic neural net from data. The resultant predictor for a multi-class classification problem is another Dirichlet distribution whose parameters are set by the continuous output of a neural net.

Meng, Yu, Huang, Jiaxin, Wang, Guangyuan, Zhang, Chao, Zhuang, Honglei, Kaplan, Lance, Han, Jiawei

Unsupervised text embedding has shown great power in a wide range of NLP tasks. While text embeddings are typically learned in the Euclidean space, directional similarity is often more effective in tasks such as word similarity and document clustering, which creates a gap between the training stage and usage stage of text embedding. To close this gap, we propose a spherical generative model based on which unsupervised word and paragraph embeddings are jointly learned. To learn text embeddings in the spherical space, we develop an efficient optimization algorithm with convergence guarantee based on Riemannian optimization. Our model enjoys high efficiency and achieves state-of-the-art performances on various text embedding tasks including word similarity and document clustering.

Meng, Yu, Huang, Jiaxin, Wang, Guangyuan, Zhang, Chao, Zhuang, Honglei, Kaplan, Lance, Han, Jiawei

Zhao, Xujiang, Ou, Yuzhe, Kaplan, Lance, Chen, Feng, Cho, Jin-Hee

Traditional deep neural nets (NNs) have shown the state-of-the-art performance in the task of classification in various applications. However, NNs have not considered any types of uncertainty associated with the class probabilities to minimize risk due to misclassification under uncertainty in real life. Unlike Bayesian neural nets indirectly infering uncertainty through weight uncertainties, evidential neural networks (ENNs) have been recently proposed to support explicit modeling of the uncertainty of class probabilities. It treats predictions of an NN as subjective opinions and learns the function by collecting the evidence leading to these opinions by a deterministic NN from data. However, an ENN is trained as a black box without explicitly considering different types of inherent data uncertainty, such as vacuity (uncertainty due to a lack of evidence) or dissonance (uncertainty due to conflicting evidence). This paper presents a new approach, called a {\em regularized ENN}, that learns an ENN based on regularizations related to different characteristics of inherent data uncertainty. Via the experiments with both synthetic and real-world datasets, we demonstrate that the proposed regularized ENN can better learn of an ENN modeling different types of uncertainty in the class probabilities for classification tasks.

Hare, James Z., Uribe, Cesar A., Kaplan, Lance, Jadbabaie, Ali

Non-Bayesian social learning theory provides a framework that models distributed inference for a group of agents interacting over a social network. In this framework, each agent iteratively forms and communicates beliefs about an unknown state of the world with their neighbors using a learning rule. Existing approaches assume agents have access to precise statistical models (in the form of likelihoods) for the state of the world. However in many situations, such models must be learned from finite data. We propose a social learning rule that takes into account uncertainty in the statistical models using second-order probabilities. Therefore, beliefs derived from uncertain models are sensitive to the amount of past evidence collected for each hypothesis. We characterize how well the hypotheses can be tested on a social network, as consistent or not with the state of the world. We explicitly show the dependency of the generated beliefs with respect to the amount of prior evidence. Moreover, as the amount of prior evidence goes to infinity, learning occurs and is consistent with traditional social learning theory.

Sensoy, Murat, Kaplan, Lance, Kandemir, Melih

Deterministic neural nets have been shown to learn effective predictors on a wide range of machine learning problems. However, as the standard approach is to train the network to minimize a prediction loss, the resultant model remains ignorant to its prediction confidence. Orthogonally to Bayesian neural nets that indirectly infer prediction uncertainty through weight uncertainties, we propose explicit modeling of the same using the theory of subjective logic. By placing a Dirichlet distribution on the class probabilities, we treat predictions of a neural net as subjective opinions and learn the function that collects the evidence leading to these opinions by a deterministic neural net from data. The resultant predictor for a multi-class classification problem is another Dirichlet distribution whose parameters are set by the continuous output of a neural net. We provide a preliminary analysis on how the peculiarities of our new loss function drive improved uncertainty estimation. We observe that our method achieves unprecedented success on detection of out-of-distribution queries and endurance against adversarial perturbations.

Sensoy, Murat, Kaplan, Lance, Kandemir, Melih

Kaplan, Lance, Cerutti, Federico, Sensoy, Murat, Preece, Alun, Sullivan, Paul

This paper argues the need for research to realize uncertainty-aware artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI\&ML) systems for decision support by describing a number of motivating scenarios. Furthermore, the paper defines uncertainty-awareness and lays out the challenges along with surveying some promising research directions. A theoretical demonstration illustrates how two emerging uncertainty-aware ML and AI technologies could be integrated and be of value for a route planning operation.

Cerutti, Federico, Kaplan, Lance, Kimmig, Angelika, Sensoy, Murat

We enable aProbLog---a probabilistic logical programming approach---to reason in presence of uncertain probabilities represented as Beta-distributed random variables. We achieve the same performance of state-of-the-art algorithms for highly specified and engineered domains, while simultaneously we maintain the flexibility offered by aProbLog in handling complex relational domains. Our motivation is that faithfully capturing the distribution of probabilities is necessary to compute an expected utility for effective decision making under uncertainty: unfortunately, these probability distributions can be highly uncertain due to sparse data. To understand and accurately manipulate such probability distributions we need a well-defined theoretical framework that is provided by the Beta distribution, which specifies a distribution of probabilities representing all the possible values of a probability when the exact value is unknown.

Sensoy, Murat, Kandemir, Melih, Kaplan, Lance

Deterministic neural nets have been shown to learn effective predictors on a wide range of machine learning problems. However, as the standard approach is to train the network to minimize a prediction loss, the resultant model remains ignorant to its prediction confidence. Orthogonally to Bayesian neural nets that indirectly infer prediction uncertainty through weight uncertainties, we propose explicit modeling of the same using the theory of subjective logic. By placing a Dirichlet prior on the softmax output, we treat predictions of a neural net as subjective opinions and learn the function that collects the evidence leading to these opinions by a deterministic neural net from data. The resultant predictor for a multi-class classification problem is another Dirichlet distribution whose parameters are set by the continuous output of a neural net. We provide a preliminary analysis on how the peculiarities of our new loss function drive improved uncertainty estimation. We observe that our method achieves unprecedented success on detection of out-of-sample queries and endurance against adversarial perturbations.