If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Sarker, Md Kamruzzaman, Hitzler, Pascal
Concept Induction refers to the problem of creating complex Description Logic class descriptions (i.e., TBox axioms) from instance examples (i.e., ABox data). In this paper we look particularly at the case where both a set of positive and a set of negative instances are given, and complex class expressions are sought under which the positive but not the negative examples fall. Concept induction has found applications in ontology engineering, but existing algorithms have fundamental performance issues in some scenarios, mainly because a high number of invokations of an external Description Logic reasoner is usually required. In this paper we present a new algorithm for this problem which drastically reduces the number of reasoner invokations needed. While this comes at the expense of a more limited traversal of the search space, we show that our approach improves execution times by up to several orders of magnitude, while output correctness, measured in the amount of correct coverage of the input instances, remains reasonably high in many cases. Our approach thus should provide a strong alternative to existing systems, in particular in settings where other systems are prohibitively slow.
Semantic Web knowledge representation standards, and in particular RDF and OWL, often come endowed with a formal semantics which is considered to be of fundamental importance for the field. Reasoning, i.e., the drawing of logical inferences from knowledge expressed in such standards, is traditionally based on logical deductive methods and algorithms which can be proven to be sound and complete and terminating, i.e. correct in a very strong sense. For various reasons, though, in particular, the scalability issues arising from the ever-increasing amounts of Semantic Web data available and the inability of deductive algorithms to deal with noise in the data, it has been argued that alternative means of reasoning should be investigated which bear high promise for high scalability and better robustness. From this perspective, deductive algorithms can be considered the gold standard regarding correctness against which alternative methods need to be tested. In this paper, we show that it is possible to train a Deep Learning system on RDF knowledge graphs, such that it is able to perform reasoning over new RDF knowledge graphs, with high precision and recall compared to the deductive gold standard.
It has been argued that it is much easier to convey logical statements using rules rather than OWL (or description logic (DL)) axioms. Based on recent theoretical developments on transformations between rules and DLs, we have developed ROWLTab, a Protege plugin that allows users to enter OWL axioms by way of rules; the plugin then automatically converts these rules into OWL 2 DL axioms if possible, and prompts the user in case such a conversion is not possible without weakening the semantics of the rule. In this paper, we present ROWLTab, together with a user evaluation of its effectiveness compared to entering axioms using the standard Protege interface. Our evaluation shows that modeling with ROWLTab is much quicker than the standard interface, while at the same time, also less prone to errors for hard modeling tasks.
Once the conceptual overview, in terms of a somewhat informal class diagram, has been designed in the course of engineering an ontology, the process of adding many of the appropriate logical axioms is mostly a routine task. We provide a Protege plugin which supports this task, together with a visual user interface, based on established methods for ontology design pattern modeling.
In our experience, some ontology users find it much easier to convey logical statements using rules rather than OWL (or description logic) axioms. Based on recent theoretical developments on transformations between rules and description logics, we develop ROWL, a Protege plugin that allows users to enter OWL axioms by way of rules; the plugin then automatically converts these rules into OWL DL axioms if possible, and prompts the user in case such a conversion is not possible without weakening the semantics of the rule.
Hitzler, Pascal, Krisnadhi, Adila
Conjunctive query answering over expressive Horn Description Logic ontologies is a relevant and challenging problem which, in some cases, can be addressed by application of the chase algorithm. In this paper, we define a novel acyclicity notion which provides a sufficient condition for termination of the restricted chase over Horn-SRIQ TBoxes. We show that this notion generalizes most of the existing acyclicity conditions (both theoretically and empirically). Furthermore, this new acyclicity notion gives rise to a very efficient reasoning procedure. We provide evidence for this by providing a materialization based reasoner for acyclic ontologies which outperforms other state-of-the-art systems.
Janowicz, Krzysztof (University of California, Santa Barbara) | Harmelen, Frank van (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) | Hendler, James A. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) | Hitzler, Pascal (Wright State University)
While catchphrases such as big data, smart data, data-intensive science, or smart dust highlight different aspects, they share a common theme: Namely, a shift towards a data-centric perspective in which the synthesis and analysis of data at an ever-increasing spatial, temporal, and thematic resolution promises new insights, while, at the same time, reducing the need for strong domain theories as starting points. In terms of the envisioned methodologies, those catchphrases tend to emphasize the role of predictive analytics, that is, statistical techniques including data mining and machine learning, as well as supercomputing. Interestingly, however, while this perspective takes the availability of data as a given, it does not answer the question how one would discover the required data in today’s chaotic information universe, how one would understand which datasets can be meaningfully integrated, and how to communicate the results to humans and machines alike. The semantic web addresses these questions. In the following, we argue why the data train needs semantic rails. We point out that making sense of data and gaining new insights works best if inductive and deductive techniques go hand-in-hand instead of competing over the prerogative of interpretation.
Harmelen, Frank van (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) | Hendler, James A. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) | Hitzler, Pascal (Wright State University) | Janowicz, Krzysztof (University of California, Santa Barbara)
Garcez, Artur d'Avila (City University London) | Besold, Tarek R. (Universitaet Onsnabrueck) | Raedt, Luc de (KU Leuven) | Földiak, Peter (University of St. Andrews) | Hitzler, Pascal (Wright State University) | Icard, Thomas (Stanford University) | Kühnberger, Kai-Uwe (Universitaet Osnabrueck) | Lamb, Luis C. (Institute of Informatics, UFRGS) | Miikkulainen, Risto (University of Texas at Austin) | Silver, Daniel L. (Acadia University)
The goal of neural-symbolic computation is to integrate robust connectionist learning and sound symbolic reasoning. With the recent advances in connectionist learning, in particular deep neural networks, forms of representation learning have emerged. However, such representations have not become useful for reasoning. Results from neural-symbolic computation have shown to offer powerful alternatives for knowledge representation, learning and reasoning in neural computation. This paper recalls the main contributions and discusses key challenges for neural-symbolic integration which have been identified at a recent Dagstuhl seminar.