Dietterich, Thomas


Benchmarking Neural Network Robustness to Common Corruptions and Perturbations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper we establish rigorous benchmarks for image classifier robustness. MAGENET-C,standardizes and expands the corruption robustness topic, while showing which classifiers are preferable in safety-critical applications. MAGENET-Pwhich enables researchers to benchmark a classifier's robustness to common perturbations. Unlike recent robustness research, this benchmark evaluates performance on common corruptions and perturbations not worst-case adversarial perturbations. We find that there are negligible changes in relative corruption robustness from AlexNet classifiers to ResNet classifiers. Afterward we discover ways to enhance corruption and perturbation robustness. We even find that a bypassed adversarial defense provides substantial common perturbation robustness. Together our benchmarks may aid future work toward networks that robustly generalize. The human vision system is robust in ways that existing computer vision systems are not (Recht et al., 2018; Azulay & Weiss, 2018). Unlike current deep learning classifiers (Krizhevsky et al., 2012; He et al., 2015; Xie et al., 2016), the human vision system is not fooled by small changes in query images. Humans are also not confused by many forms of corruption such as snow, blur, pixelation, and novel combinations of these. Humans can even deal with abstract changes in structure and style. Achieving these kinds of robustness is an important goal for computer vision and machine learning.


Sample-Based Tree Search with Fixed and Adaptive State Abstractions

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Sample-based tree search (SBTS) is an approach to solving Markov decision problems based on constructing a lookahead search tree using random samples from a generative model of the MDP. It encompasses Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) algorithms like UCT as well as algorithms such as sparse sampling. SBTS is well-suited to solving MDPs with large state spaces due to the relative insensitivity of SBTS algorithms to the size of the state space. The limiting factor in the performance of SBTS tends to be the exponential dependence of sample complexity on the depth of the search tree. The number of samples required to build a search tree is O(( A B) d), where A is the number of available actions, B is the number of possible random outcomes of taking an action, and d is the depth of the tree.


Sample-Based Tree Search with Fixed and Adaptive State Abstractions

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Sample-based tree search (SBTS) is an approach to solving Markov decision problems based on constructing a lookahead search tree using random samples from a generative model of the MDP. It encompasses Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) algorithms like UCT as well as algorithms such as sparse sampling. SBTS is well-suited to solving MDPs with large state spaces due to the relative insensitivity of SBTS algorithms to the size of the state space. The limiting factor in the performance of SBTS tends to be the exponential dependence of sample complexity on the depth of the search tree. The number of samples required to build a search tree is O((|A|B)^d), where |A| is the number of available actions, B is the number of possible random outcomes of taking an action, and d is the depth of the tree. State abstraction can be used to reduce B by aggregating random outcomes together into abstract states. Recent work has shown that abstract tree search often performs substantially better than tree search conducted in the ground state space. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical evaluation of tree search with both fixed and adaptive state abstractions. We derive a bound on regret due to state abstraction in tree search that decomposes abstraction error into three components arising from properties of the abstraction and the search algorithm. We describe versions of popular SBTS algorithms that use fixed state abstractions, and we introduce the Progressive Abstraction Refinement in Sparse Sampling (PARSS) algorithm, which adapts its abstraction during search. We evaluate PARSS as well as sparse sampling with fixed abstractions on 12 experimental problems, and find that PARSS outperforms search with a fixed abstraction and that search with even highly inaccurate fixed abstractions outperforms search without abstraction. These results establish progressive abstraction refinement as a promising basis for new tree search algorithms, and we propose directions for future work within the progressive refinement framework.


A Meta-Analysis of the Anomaly Detection Problem

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This article provides a thorough meta-analysis of the anomaly detection problem. To accomplish this we first identify approaches to benchmarking anomaly detection algorithms across the literature and produce a large corpus of anomaly detection benchmarks that vary in their construction across several dimensions we deem important to real-world applications: (a) point difficulty, (b) relative frequency of anomalies, (c) clusteredness of anomalies, and (d) relevance of features. We apply a representative set of anomaly detection algorithms to this corpus, yielding a very large collection of experimental results. We analyze these results to understand many phenomena observed in previous work. First we observe the effects of experimental design on experimental results. Second, results are evaluated with two metrics, ROC Area Under the Curve and Average Precision. We employ statistical hypothesis testing to demonstrate the value (or lack thereof) of our benchmarks. We then offer several approaches to summarizing our experimental results, drawing several conclusions about the impact of our methodology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of some algorithms. Last, we compare results against a trivial solution as an alternate means of normalizing the reported performance of algorithms. The intended contributions of this article are many; in addition to providing a large publicly-available corpus of anomaly detection benchmarks, we provide an ontology for describing anomaly detection contexts, a methodology for controlling various aspects of benchmark creation, guidelines for future experimental design and a discussion of the many potential pitfalls of trying to measure success in this field.


Automatic Discovery and Transfer of Task Hierarchies in Reinforcement Learning

AI Magazine

A principal one among them is the existence of multiple domains that share the same underlying causal structure for actions. We describe an approach that exploits this shared causal structure to discover a hierarchical task structure in a source domain, which in turn speeds up learning of task execution knowledge in a new target domain. Our approach is theoretically justified and compares favorably to manually designed task hierarchies in learning efficiency in the target domain. We demonstrate that causally motivated task hierarchies transfer more robustly than other kinds of detailed knowledge that depend on the idiosyncrasies of the source domain and are hence less transferable.


Automatic Discovery and Transfer of Task Hierarchies in Reinforcement Learning

AI Magazine

Sequential decision tasks present many opportunities for the study of transfer learning. A principal one among them is the existence of multiple domains that share the same underlying causal structure for actions. We describe an approach that exploits this shared causal structure to discover a hierarchical task structure in a source domain, which in turn speeds up learning of task execution knowledge in a new target domain. Our approach is theoretically justified and compares favorably to manually designed task hierarchies in learning efficiency in the target domain. We demonstrate that causally motivated task hierarchies transfer more robustly than other kinds of detailed knowledge that depend on the idiosyncrasies of the source domain and are hence less transferable.


Zhang

AAAI Conferences

In this paper we describe the application of a novel learning and problem solving architecture to the domain of airspace management, where multiple requests for the use of airspace need to be reconciled and managed automatically. The key feature of our "Generalized Integrated Learning Architecture" (GILA) is a set of integrated learning and reasoning (ILR) systems coordinated by a central meta-reasoning executive (MRE). Each ILR learns independently from the same training example and contributes to problem-solving in concert with other ILRs as directed by the MRE. Formal evaluations show that our system performs as well as or better than humans after learning from the same training data. Further, GILA outperforms any individual ILR run in isolation, thus demonstrating the power of the ensemble architecture for learning and problem solving.


An Ensemble Learning and Problem Solving Architecture for Airspace Management

AAAI Conferences

In this paper we describe the application of a novel learning and problem solving architecture to the domain of airspace management, where multiple requests for the use of airspace need to be reconciled and managed automatically. The key feature of our "Generalized Integrated Learning Architecture" (GILA) is a set of integrated learning and reasoning (ILR) systems coordinated by a central meta-reasoning executive (MRE). Each ILR learns independently from the same training example and contributes to problem-solving in concert with other ILRs as directed by the MRE. Formal evaluations show that our system performs as well as or better than humans after learning from the same training data. Further, GILA outperforms any individual ILR run in isolation, thus demonstrating the power of the ensemble architecture for learning and problem solving.


Improving the Performance of Radial Basis Function Networks by Learning Center Locations

Neural Information Processing Systems

Three methods for improving the performance of (gaussian) radial basis function (RBF) networks were tested on the NETtaik task. In RBF, a new example is classified by computing its Euclidean distance to a set of centers chosen by unsupervised methods. The application of supervised learning to learn a non-Euclidean distance metric was found to reduce the error rate of RBF networks, while supervised learning of each center's variance resultedin inferior performance. The best improvement in accuracy was achieved by networks called generalized radial basis function (GRBF) networks. In GRBF, the center locations are determined by supervised learning. After training on 1000 words, RBF classifies 56.5% of letters correct, while GRBF scores 73.4% letters correct (on a separate test set). From these and other experiments, we conclude that supervised learning of center locations can be very important for radial basis function learning.