Collaborating Authors

Che, Wanxiang

NL-Augmenter: A Framework for Task-Sensitive Natural Language Augmentation Artificial Intelligence

Data augmentation is an important component in the robustness evaluation of models in natural language processing (NLP) and in enhancing the diversity of the data they are trained on. In this paper, we present NL-Augmenter, a new participatory Python-based natural language augmentation framework which supports the creation of both transformations (modifications to the data) and filters (data splits according to specific features). We describe the framework and an initial set of 117 transformations and 23 filters for a variety of natural language tasks. We demonstrate the efficacy of NL-Augmenter by using several of its transformations to analyze the robustness of popular natural language models. The infrastructure, datacards and robustness analysis results are available publicly on the NL-Augmenter repository (\url{}).

Discovering Drug-Target Interaction Knowledge from Biomedical Literature Artificial Intelligence

The Interaction between Drugs and Targets (DTI) in human body plays a crucial role in biomedical science and applications. As millions of papers come out every year in the biomedical domain, automatically discovering DTI knowledge from biomedical literature, which are usually triplets about drugs, targets and their interaction, becomes an urgent demand in the industry. Existing methods of discovering biological knowledge are mainly extractive approaches that often require detailed annotations (e.g., all mentions of biological entities, relations between every two entity mentions, etc.). However, it is difficult and costly to obtain sufficient annotations due to the requirement of expert knowledge from biomedical domains. To overcome these difficulties, we explore the first end-to-end solution for this task by using generative approaches. We regard the DTI triplets as a sequence and use a Transformer-based model to directly generate them without using the detailed annotations of entities and relations. Further, we propose a semi-supervised method, which leverages the aforementioned end-to-end model to filter unlabeled literature and label them. Experimental results show that our method significantly outperforms extractive baselines on DTI discovery. We also create a dataset, KD-DTI, to advance this task and will release it to the community.

DuRecDial 2.0: A Bilingual Parallel Corpus for Conversational Recommendation Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we provide a bilingual parallel human-to-human recommendation dialog dataset (DuRecDial 2.0) to enable researchers to explore a challenging task of multilingual and cross-lingual conversational recommendation. The difference between DuRecDial 2.0 and existing conversational recommendation datasets is that the data item (Profile, Goal, Knowledge, Context, Response) in DuRecDial 2.0 is annotated in two languages, both English and Chinese, while other datasets are built with the setting of a single language. We collect 8.2k dialogs aligned across English and Chinese languages (16.5k dialogs and 255k utterances in total) that are annotated by crowdsourced workers with strict quality control procedure. We then build monolingual, multilingual, and cross-lingual conversational recommendation baselines on DuRecDial 2.0. Experiment results show that the use of additional English data can bring performance improvement for Chinese conversational recommendation, indicating the benefits of DuRecDial 2.0. Finally, this dataset provides a challenging testbed for future studies of monolingual, multilingual, and cross-lingual conversational recommendation.

Understanding Attention in Machine Reading Comprehension Artificial Intelligence

Achieving human-level performance on some of Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) datasets is no longer challenging with the help of powerful Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). However, the internal mechanism of these artifacts still remains unclear, placing an obstacle for further understanding these models. This paper focuses on conducting a series of analytical experiments to examine the relations between the multi-head self-attention and the final performance, trying to analyze the potential explainability in PLM-based MRC models. We perform quantitative analyses on SQuAD (English) and CMRC 2018 (Chinese), two span-extraction MRC datasets, on top of BERT, ALBERT, and ELECTRA in various aspects. We discover that {\em passage-to-question} and {\em passage understanding} attentions are the most important ones, showing strong correlations to the final performance than other parts. Through visualizations and case studies, we also observe several general findings on the attention maps, which could be helpful to understand how these models solve the questions.

Learning to Bridge Metric Spaces: Few-shot Joint Learning of Intent Detection and Slot Filling Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we investigate few-shot joint learning for dialogue language understanding. Most existing few-shot models learn a single task each time with only a few examples. However, dialogue language understanding contains two closely related tasks, i.e., intent detection and slot filling, and often benefits from jointly learning the two tasks. This calls for new few-shot learning techniques that are able to capture task relations from only a few examples and jointly learn multiple tasks. To achieve this, we propose a similarity-based few-shot learning scheme, named Contrastive Prototype Merging network (ConProm), that learns to bridge metric spaces of intent and slot on data-rich domains, and then adapt the bridged metric space to the specific few-shot domain. Experiments on two public datasets, Snips and FewJoint, show that our model significantly outperforms the strong baselines in one and five shots settings.

ExpMRC: Explainability Evaluation for Machine Reading Comprehension Artificial Intelligence

Achieving human-level performance on some of Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) datasets is no longer challenging with the help of powerful Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). However, it is necessary to provide both answer prediction and its explanation to further improve the MRC system's reliability, especially for real-life applications. In this paper, we propose a new benchmark called ExpMRC for evaluating the explainability of the MRC systems. ExpMRC contains four subsets, including SQuAD, CMRC 2018, RACE$^+$, and C$^3$ with additional annotations of the answer's evidence. The MRC systems are required to give not only the correct answer but also its explanation. We use state-of-the-art pre-trained language models to build baseline systems and adopt various unsupervised approaches to extract evidence without a human-annotated training set. The experimental results show that these models are still far from human performance, suggesting that the ExpMRC is challenging. Resources will be available through

Discovering Dialog Structure Graph for Open-Domain Dialog Generation Artificial Intelligence

Learning interpretable dialog structure from human-human dialogs yields basic insights into the structure of conversation, and also provides background knowledge to facilitate dialog generation. In this paper, we conduct unsupervised discovery of dialog structure from chitchat corpora, and then leverage it to facilitate dialog generation in downstream systems. To this end, we present a Discrete Variational Auto-Encoder with Graph Neural Network (DVAE-GNN), to discover a unified human-readable dialog structure. The structure is a two-layer directed graph that contains session-level semantics in the upper-layer vertices, utterance-level semantics in the lower-layer vertices, and edges among these semantic vertices. In particular, we integrate GNN into DVAE to fine-tune utterance-level semantics for more effective recognition of session-level semantic vertex. Furthermore, to alleviate the difficulty of discovering a large number of utterance-level semantics, we design a coupling mechanism that binds each utterance-level semantic vertex with a distinct phrase to provide prior semantics. Experimental results on two benchmark corpora confirm that DVAE-GNN can discover meaningful dialog structure, and the use of dialog structure graph as background knowledge can facilitate a graph grounded conversational system to conduct coherent multi-turn dialog generation.

C2C-GenDA: Cluster-to-Cluster Generation for Data Augmentation of Slot Filling Artificial Intelligence

Slot filling, a fundamental module of spoken language understanding, often suffers from insufficient quantity and diversity of training data. To remedy this, we propose a novel Cluster-to-Cluster generation framework for Data Augmentation (DA), named C2C-GenDA. It enlarges the training set by reconstructing existing utterances into alternative expressions while keeping semantic. Different from previous DA works that reconstruct utterances one by one independently, C2C-GenDA jointly encodes multiple existing utterances of the same semantics and simultaneously decodes multiple unseen expressions. Jointly generating multiple new utterances allows to consider the relations between generated instances and encourages diversity. Besides, encoding multiple existing utterances endows C2C with a wider view of existing expressions, helping to reduce generation that duplicates existing data. Experiments on ATIS and Snips datasets show that instances augmented by C2C-GenDA improve slot filling by 7.99 (11.9%) and 5.76 (13.6%) F-scores respectively, when there are only hundreds of training utterances.

Few-shot Learning for Multi-label Intent Detection Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we study the few-shot multi-label classification for user intent detection. For multi-label intent detection, state-of-the-art work estimates label-instance relevance scores and uses a threshold to select multiple associated intent labels. To determine appropriate thresholds with only a few examples, we first learn universal thresholding experience on data-rich domains, and then adapt the thresholds to certain few-shot domains with a calibration based on nonparametric learning. For better calculation of label-instance relevance score, we introduce label name embedding as anchor points in representation space, which refines representations of different classes to be well-separated from each other. Experiments on two datasets show that the proposed model significantly outperforms strong baselines in both one-shot and five-shot settings.