Buchanan, B. G.


Models of learning systems

Classics

"The terms adaptation, learning, concept-formation, induction, self-organization, and self-repair have all been used in the context of learning system (LS) research. The research has been conducted within many different scientific communities, however, and these terms have come to have a variety of meanings. It is therefore often difficult to recognize that problems which are described differently may in fact be identical. Learning system models as well are often tuned to the require- ments of a particular discipline and are not suitable for application in related disciplines."In Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 11. Dekker


DENDRAL and Meta-DENDRAL: Their applications dimension

Classics

Retrospective on lessons learned from the Dendral project."The DENDRAL and Meta-DENDRAL programs are products of a large, interdisciplinary group of Stanford University scientists concerned with many and highly varied aspects of the mechanization of scientific reasoning and the formalization of scientific knowledge for this purpose. An early motivation for our wok was to explore the power of existing Al methods, such as heuristic search, for reasoning in difficult scientific problems. Another concern has been to exploit the AI methodology to understand better some fundamental questions in the philosophy of science, for example the processes by which explanatory hypotheses are discovered or judged adequate. From the start, the project has had an applications dimension. It has sought to develop "expert level" agents to assist in the solution of problems in their discipline that require complex symbolic reasoning. The applications dimension is the focus of this paper."Artificial Intelligence 11 (1-2): 5-24


Models of learning systems

Classics

"The terms adaptation, learning, concept-formation, induction, self-organization, and self-repair have all been used in the context of learning system (LS) research. The research has been conducted within many different scientific communities, however, and these terms have come to have a variety of meanings. It is therefore often difficult to recognize that problems which are described differently may in fact be identical. Learning system models as well are often tuned to the require- ments of a particular discipline and are not suitable for application in related disciplines."In Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 11. Dekker


Meta-level knowledge: Overview and applications

Classics

"We define the concept of meta-level Knowledge, and illustrate it by briefly reviewing four examples that have been described in detail elsewhere. The examples include applications of the idea to tasks such as transfer of expertise from a domain expert to a program, and the maintenance and use of large Knowledge bases. We explore common themes that arise from these examples, and examine broader implications of the idea, in particular its impact on the design and construction of large programs."IJCAI 5, 920-927


Applications of artificial intelligence for chemical inference. 22. Automatic rule formation in mass spectrometry by means of the meta-DENDRAL program

Classics

"The DENDRAL computer program uses established rules of molecular fragmentation to help chemists solve complex structural problems from mass spectral data. This paper describes a computer program called Meta-DENDRAL, that can aid in the discovery of such rules from empirical data on known components. The program uses heuristic methods to search for common structural environments around those bonds that are found to fragment and abstracts plausible fragmentation rules. The program has been tested on the well-characterized, low-resolution mass spectra of aliphatic amines and the high-resolution mass spectra of estrogenic steroids. The program has also discovered new fragmentation rules for mono-, di-, and triketoandrostanes."Journal of the American Chemical Society 98:6168-6178


On generality and problem solving: a case study using the DENDRAL program

Classics

"Heuristic DENDRAL is a computer program written to solve problems of inductive inference in organic chemistry. This paper will use the design of Heuristic DENDRAL and its performance on different problems for a discussion of the following topics: 1. the design for generality; 2. the performance problems attendant upon too much generality; 3. the coupling of expertise to the general problem solving processes; 4. the symbiotic relationship between generality and expertness, and the implications of this symbiosis for the study and design of problem solving systems. We conclude the paper with a view of the design for a general problem solver that is a variant of the "big switch" theory of generality."See also: Stanford University Report (ACM Citation)In Meltzer, B. and Michie, D. (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 6, pp. 165–190. Edinburgh University Press


Some Speculation about Artificial Intelligence and Legal Reasoning

Classics

Arguably the first article discussing the uses of AI in the law beyond straightforward information retrieval.Although the computer has worked its way out of the laboratory and into common experience, lawyers have made slim progress towards finding useful computer applications. Research in artificial intelligence, a branch of computer science, has illuminated our capacity to use computers to model human thought processes. This research suggests that computer science may assist lawyers in both the study and performance of their reasoning processes. In this Article we will argue that the time has come for serious interdisciplinary work between lawyers and computer scientists to explore the computer's potential in law.Stanford Law Review vol.23, no.1, November, 1970