Berliner, H. J.


The B* tree search algorithm: A best-first proof procedure

Classics

During the course of a search, these bounds at a node tend to converge, producing natural termination of the search. If we can specify a certain degree of closeness to a goal as a terminating condition, and achieve this condition, then this reduces the degree of arbitrariness in stopping when no goal is encountered. A goal together with a bandwidth condition around the value of the goal would guarantee a solution of value no worse than the bandwidth away from the goal, providing the search terminated. It should be noted that if this search were with single valued nodes and this were maximum depth, the search would terminate here without exploring the question of the uncertainty in the evaluation.


A chronology of computer chess and its literature

Classics

It can be seen that a great deal of worthwhile material has now been generated about computer chess. There is also quite a bit of nonsense by persons who have never built a program. Several groups with excellent programs have done little publishing, although I can hardly blame them since their work requires much time and is usually unsupported by any funding agencies. Certain staples have given rise to duplication: All but one of the books published explain the depth-first alpha-beta procedure.



Search and knowledge

Classics

Chess programs can differ in depth of search or in the evaluation function applied to leaf nodes or both. Over the past 10 years, the notion that the principal way to strengthen a chess program is to improve its depth of search has held sway. Improving depth of search undoubtedly does improve a program's strength. We examine the notion that it is possible to project the playing strength of chess programs by having different versions of the same program (differing only in depth of search) play each other.


A representation and some mechanisms for a problem solving chess program

Classics

Abstract: This paper is a condensation of a recent PhD dissertation. It describes a program, CAPS-2, and presents both its form and some of the results obtained in testing it. The domain of the work is chess tactics, and the emphasis is on recognizing situations and dealing with them explicitly. Discussed are (1) Recognition predicates, (2) Methods of stating specific problems so that their solution is easier than the general problems that include them, and (3) Ways that results of dynamic analysis (tree search) can be made available throughout a search tree for various purposes.


Chess as problem solving: The development of a tactics analyzer

Classics

Abstract: This thesis concerns itself with progress that has been made in the development of a better model of computer chess. The author considers the fact that chess programs have made almost no gain in strength, as measured on the human scale, in the period 1968 - 1973, as indicative that the popular model of computer chess is near the limits of its exploitability. Some indication of why this could be so is provided in a chapter which discusses some very basic flaws in the current popular model of computer chess. Most serious of these is the Horizon Effect which is shown to cause arbitrary errors in the performance of any program employing a maximum depth in conjunction with a quiescence procedure.