The World Wide Web changed the way we live our lives, most notably in the ways we now share, consume and find information. There are many more webpages now than there are people, and links connect these webpages to each other in a giant network that is accessible from your favorite browser.
A downside of this success is that now there’s too much information, so much in fact, that we need machines to intelligently read these webpages and answer our questions. The Semantic Web is a movement and research community that brings together experts from different areas, examples being natural language processing, ontologies, databases, social media, networks and logic, to realize the vision of making the Web machine-readable.
Why is this such a difficult problem? The main reason is that much of the Web, even today, is in a natural language like English or French. These languages are very ambiguous, but we humans have a knack for understanding them due to a variety of factors, not the least of which is our immense store of background knowledge and common sense. Machines are not yet capable of understanding English at the same level as an adult human being, though impressive progress is being made.
To overcome this problem, the Semantic Web presents a vision of the Web as an interlinked network of concepts, relationships and entities, rather than an interlinked network of ‘natural’ webpages. Intelligent systems, often called ‘agents’, can consume the Semantic Web and answer complex questions that now require human labor. The research in the Semantic Web also helps search; e.g. the Google Knowledge Graph, which uses Semantic Web technology, can help you to answer some of your questions without even clicking on a link!
Welcome to DeepCube – a Horizon 2020 Space project that will unlock the potential of big Copernicus data with Artificial Intelligence and Semantic Web technologies, with the objective to address problems of high environmental and societal impact. Taken from the Coast Guard helicopter. The southern end of the lava flow is about 2.6 km from Suðurstrandarvegur. According to initial information, the fissure is about 200 m long. The website of the EU project DeepCube is up and it looks amazing!
Personal health libraries (PHLs) provide a single point of secure access to patients digital health data and enable the integration of knowledge stored in their digital health profiles with other sources of global knowledge. PHLs can help empower caregivers and health care providers to make informed decisions about patients health by understanding medical events in the context of their lives. This paper reports the implementation of a mobile health digital intervention that incorporates both digital health data stored in patients PHLs and other sources of contextual knowledge to deliver tailored recommendations for improving self-care behaviors in diabetic adults. We conducted a thematic assessment of patient functional and nonfunctional requirements that are missing from current EHRs based on evidence from the literature. We used the results to identify the technologies needed to address those requirements. We describe the technological infrastructures used to construct, manage, and integrate the types of knowledge stored in the PHL. We leverage the Social Linked Data (Solid) platform to design a fully decentralized and privacy-aware platform that supports interoperability and care integration. We provided an initial prototype design of a PHL and drafted a use case scenario that involves four actors to demonstrate how the proposed prototype can be used to address user requirements, including the construction and management of the PHL and its utilization for developing a mobile app that queries the knowledge stored and integrated into the PHL in a private and fully decentralized manner to provide better recommendations. The proposed PHL helps patients and their caregivers take a central role in making decisions regarding their health and equips their health care providers with informatics tools that support the collection and interpretation of the collected knowledge.
Semantic web technologies have shown their effectiveness, especially when it comes to knowledge representation, reasoning, and data integrations. However, the original semantic web vision, whereby machine readable web data could be automatically actioned upon by intelligent software web agents, has yet to be realised. In order to better understand the existing technological challenges and opportunities, in this paper we examine the status quo in terms of intelligent software web agents, guided by research with respect to requirements and architectural components, coming from that agents community. We start by collating and summarising requirements and core architectural components relating to intelligent software agent. Following on from this, we use the identified requirements to both further elaborate on the semantic web agent motivating use case scenario, and to summarise different perspectives on the requirements when it comes to semantic web agent literature. Finally, we propose a hybrid semantic web agent architecture, discuss the role played by existing semantic web standards, and point to existing work in the broader semantic web community any beyond that could help us to make the semantic web agent vision a reality.
Abbas, Nacira, Alghamdi, Kholoud, Alinam, Mortaza, Alloatti, Francesca, Amaral, Glenda, d'Amato, Claudia, Asprino, Luigi, Beno, Martin, Bensmann, Felix, Biswas, Russa, Cai, Ling, Capshaw, Riley, Carriero, Valentina Anita, Celino, Irene, Dadoun, Amine, De Giorgis, Stefano, Delva, Harm, Domingue, John, Dumontier, Michel, Emonet, Vincent, van Erp, Marieke, Arias, Paola Espinoza, Fallatah, Omaima, Ferrada, Sebastián, Ocaña, Marc Gallofré, Georgiou, Michalis, Gesese, Genet Asefa, Gillis-Webber, Frances, Giovannetti, Francesca, Buey, Marìa Granados, Harrando, Ismail, Heibi, Ivan, Horta, Vitor, Huber, Laurine, Igne, Federico, Jaradeh, Mohamad Yaser, Keshan, Neha, Koleva, Aneta, Koteich, Bilal, Kurniawan, Kabul, Liu, Mengya, Ma, Chuangtao, Maas, Lientje, Mansfield, Martin, Mariani, Fabio, Marzi, Eleonora, Mesbah, Sepideh, Mistry, Maheshkumar, Tirado, Alba Catalina Morales, Nguyen, Anna, Nguyen, Viet Bach, Oelen, Allard, Pasqual, Valentina, Paulheim, Heiko, Polleres, Axel, Porena, Margherita, Portisch, Jan, Presutti, Valentina, Pustu-Iren, Kader, Mendez, Ariam Rivas, Roshankish, Soheil, Rudolph, Sebastian, Sack, Harald, Sakor, Ahmad, Salas, Jaime, Schleider, Thomas, Shi, Meilin, Spinaci, Gianmarco, Sun, Chang, Tietz, Tabea, Dhouib, Molka Tounsi, Umbrico, Alessandro, Berg, Wouter van den, Xu, Weiqin
One of the grand challenges discussed during the Dagstuhl Seminar "Knowledge Graphs: New Directions for Knowledge Representation on the Semantic Web" and described in its report is that of a: "Public FAIR Knowledge Graph of Everything: We increasingly see the creation of knowledge graphs that capture information about the entirety of a class of entities. [...] This grand challenge extends this further by asking if we can create a knowledge graph of "everything" ranging from common sense concepts to location based entities. This knowledge graph should be "open to the public" in a FAIR manner democratizing this mass amount of knowledge." Although linked open data (LOD) is one knowledge graph, it is the closest realisation (and probably the only one) to a public FAIR Knowledge Graph (KG) of everything. Surely, LOD provides a unique testbed for experimenting and evaluating research hypotheses on open and FAIR KG. One of the most neglected FAIR issues about KGs is their ongoing evolution and long term preservation. We want to investigate this problem, that is to understand what preserving and supporting the evolution of KGs means and how these problems can be addressed. Clearly, the problem can be approached from different perspectives and may require the development of different approaches, including new theories, ontologies, metrics, strategies, procedures, etc. This document reports a collaborative effort performed by 9 teams of students, each guided by a senior researcher as their mentor, attending the International Semantic Web Research School (ISWS 2019). Each team provides a different perspective to the problem of knowledge graph evolution substantiated by a set of research questions as the main subject of their investigation. In addition, they provide their working definition for KG preservation and evolution.
Deep learning is great, but no, it won't be able to do everything. The only way to make progress in AI is to put together building blocks that are there already, but no current AI system combines. Adding knowledge to the mix, getting over prejudice against "good old AI", and scaling it up, are all necessary steps in the long and winding road to reboot AI. This is a summary of the thesis taken by scientist, best-selling author, and entrepreneur Gary Marcus towards rebooting AI. Marcus, a cognitive scientist by training, has been doing interdisciplinary work on the nature of intelligence -- artificial or otherwise -- more or less since his childhood.
Badenes-Olmedo, Carlos, Chaves-Fraga, David, Poveda-VillalÓn, MarÍa, Iglesias-Molina, Ana, Calleja, Pablo, Bernardos, Socorro, MartÍn-Chozas, Patricia, Fernández-Izquierdo, Alba, Amador-Domínguez, Elvira, Espinoza-Arias, Paola, Pozo, Luis, Ruckhaus, Edna, González-Guardia, Esteban, Cedazo, Raquel, López-Centeno, Beatriz, Corcho, Oscar
In the absence of sufficient medication for COVID patients due to the increased demand, disused drugs have been employed or the doses of those available were modified by hospital pharmacists. Some evidences for the use of alternative drugs can be found in the existing scientific literature that could assist in such decisions. However, exploiting large corpus of documents in an efficient manner is not easy, since drugs may not appear explicitly related in the texts and could be mentioned under different brand names. Drugs4Covid combines word embedding techniques and semantic web technologies to enable a drug-oriented exploration of large medical literature. Drugs and diseases are identified according to the ATC classification and MeSH categories respectively. More than 60K articles and 2M paragraphs have been processed from the CORD-19 corpus with information of COVID-19, SARS, and other related coronaviruses. An open catalogue of drugs has been created and results are publicly available through a drug browser, a keyword-guided text explorer, and a knowledge graph.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) play a crucial role in the era of the 4thIndustrial Revolution. Recently, the application of the CPS to industrial manufacturing leads to a specialization of them referred as Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS). Among other challenges, CPS and CPPS should be able to address interoperability issues, since one of their intrinsic requirement is the capability to interface and cooperate with other systems. On the other hand, to fully realize theIndustry 4.0 vision, it is required to address horizontal, vertical, and end-to-end integration enabling a complete awareness through the entire supply chain. In this context, Semantic Web standards and technologies may have a promising role to represent manufacturing knowledge in a machine-interpretable way for enabling communications among heterogeneous Industrial assets.
Reviewed By Rabia Tanveer for Readers' Favorite (5 Stars) Ultimate Step by Step Guide to Machine Learning Using Python: Predictive Modelling Concepts Explained in Simple Terms for Beginners by Daneyal Anis is a great book for beginners who want to learn Python and get into programming. From sharing the basics of the programming language to sharing some very advanced programming skills, the author has done a great job of sharing information and helping the reader increase their knowledge. The author describes how you can make models in Python, how you can code, master analytics and, overall, become a master of Python in 7 days. This is a good book for anyone who wishes to follow a career in Data Science but finds it to be intimidating. I have personally worked in a software house where the programmers worked using Python and sang praises about how easy it is. I decided to try the language and I understood nothing. I didn't have clear guidance or anyone who would help me understand the language properly. Ultimate Step by Step Guide to Machine Learning Using Python is the complete opposite.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) play a crucial role in the era of the 4thIndustrial Revolution. Recently, the application of the CPS to industrial manufacturing leads to a specialization of them referred as Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS). Among other challenges, CPS and CPPS should be able to address interoperability issues, since one of their intrinsic requirement is the capability to interface and cooperate with other systems. On the other hand, to fully realize theIndustry 4.0 vision, it is required to address horizontal, vertical, and end-to-end integration enabling a complete awareness through the entire supply chain. In this context, Semantic Web standards and technologies may have a promising role to represent manufacturing knowledge in a machine-interpretable way for enabling communications among heterogeneous Industrial assets. This paper proposes an integration of Semantic Web models available at state of the art for implementing a5C architecture mainly targeted to collect and process semantic data stream in a way that would unlock the potentiality of data yield in a smart manufacturing environment. The analysis of key industrial ontologies and semantic technologies allows us to instantiate an example scenario for monitoring Overall Equipment Effectiveness(OEE). The solution uses the SOSA ontology for representing the semantic datastream. Then, C-SPARQL queries are defined for periodically carrying out useful KPIs to address the proposed aim.
Complying with the EU Regulation on multimodal transportation services requires sharing data on the National Access Points in one of the standards (e.g., NeTEx and SIRI) indicated by the European Commission. These standards are complex and of limited practical adoption. This means that datasets are natively expressed in other formats and require a data translation process for full compliance. This paper describes the solution to turn the authoritative data of three different transport stakeholders from Italy and Spain into a format compliant with EU standards by means of Semantic Web technologies. Our solution addresses the challenge and also contributes to build a multi-modal transport Knowledge Graph of interlinked and interoperable information that enables intelligent querying and exploration, as well as facilitates the design of added-value services.