The World Wide Web changed the way we live our lives, most notably in the ways we now share, consume and find information. There are many more webpages now than there are people, and links connect these webpages to each other in a giant network that is accessible from your favorite browser.
A downside of this success is that now there’s too much information, so much in fact, that we need machines to intelligently read these webpages and answer our questions. The Semantic Web is a movement and research community that brings together experts from different areas, examples being natural language processing, ontologies, databases, social media, networks and logic, to realize the vision of making the Web machine-readable.
Why is this such a difficult problem? The main reason is that much of the Web, even today, is in a natural language like English or French. These languages are very ambiguous, but we humans have a knack for understanding them due to a variety of factors, not the least of which is our immense store of background knowledge and common sense. Machines are not yet capable of understanding English at the same level as an adult human being, though impressive progress is being made.
To overcome this problem, the Semantic Web presents a vision of the Web as an interlinked network of concepts, relationships and entities, rather than an interlinked network of ‘natural’ webpages. Intelligent systems, often called ‘agents’, can consume the Semantic Web and answer complex questions that now require human labor. The research in the Semantic Web also helps search; e.g. the Google Knowledge Graph, which uses Semantic Web technology, can help you to answer some of your questions without even clicking on a link!
Deep learning is great, but no, it won't be able to do everything. The only way to make progress in AI is to put together building blocks that are there already, but no current AI system combines. Adding knowledge to the mix, getting over prejudice against "good old AI", and scaling it up, are all necessary steps in the long and winding road to reboot AI. This is a summary of the thesis taken by scientist, best-selling author, and entrepreneur Gary Marcus towards rebooting AI. Marcus, a cognitive scientist by training, has been doing interdisciplinary work on the nature of intelligence -- artificial or otherwise -- more or less since his childhood.
Badenes-Olmedo, Carlos, Chaves-Fraga, David, Poveda-VillalÓn, MarÍa, Iglesias-Molina, Ana, Calleja, Pablo, Bernardos, Socorro, MartÍn-Chozas, Patricia, Fernández-Izquierdo, Alba, Amador-Domínguez, Elvira, Espinoza-Arias, Paola, Pozo, Luis, Ruckhaus, Edna, González-Guardia, Esteban, Cedazo, Raquel, López-Centeno, Beatriz, Corcho, Oscar
In the absence of sufficient medication for COVID patients due to the increased demand, disused drugs have been employed or the doses of those available were modified by hospital pharmacists. Some evidences for the use of alternative drugs can be found in the existing scientific literature that could assist in such decisions. However, exploiting large corpus of documents in an efficient manner is not easy, since drugs may not appear explicitly related in the texts and could be mentioned under different brand names. Drugs4Covid combines word embedding techniques and semantic web technologies to enable a drug-oriented exploration of large medical literature. Drugs and diseases are identified according to the ATC classification and MeSH categories respectively. More than 60K articles and 2M paragraphs have been processed from the CORD-19 corpus with information of COVID-19, SARS, and other related coronaviruses. An open catalogue of drugs has been created and results are publicly available through a drug browser, a keyword-guided text explorer, and a knowledge graph.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) play a crucial role in the era of the 4thIndustrial Revolution. Recently, the application of the CPS to industrial manufacturing leads to a specialization of them referred as Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS). Among other challenges, CPS and CPPS should be able to address interoperability issues, since one of their intrinsic requirement is the capability to interface and cooperate with other systems. On the other hand, to fully realize theIndustry 4.0 vision, it is required to address horizontal, vertical, and end-to-end integration enabling a complete awareness through the entire supply chain. In this context, Semantic Web standards and technologies may have a promising role to represent manufacturing knowledge in a machine-interpretable way for enabling communications among heterogeneous Industrial assets.
Reviewed By Rabia Tanveer for Readers' Favorite (5 Stars) Ultimate Step by Step Guide to Machine Learning Using Python: Predictive Modelling Concepts Explained in Simple Terms for Beginners by Daneyal Anis is a great book for beginners who want to learn Python and get into programming. From sharing the basics of the programming language to sharing some very advanced programming skills, the author has done a great job of sharing information and helping the reader increase their knowledge. The author describes how you can make models in Python, how you can code, master analytics and, overall, become a master of Python in 7 days. This is a good book for anyone who wishes to follow a career in Data Science but finds it to be intimidating. I have personally worked in a software house where the programmers worked using Python and sang praises about how easy it is. I decided to try the language and I understood nothing. I didn't have clear guidance or anyone who would help me understand the language properly. Ultimate Step by Step Guide to Machine Learning Using Python is the complete opposite.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) play a crucial role in the era of the 4thIndustrial Revolution. Recently, the application of the CPS to industrial manufacturing leads to a specialization of them referred as Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS). Among other challenges, CPS and CPPS should be able to address interoperability issues, since one of their intrinsic requirement is the capability to interface and cooperate with other systems. On the other hand, to fully realize theIndustry 4.0 vision, it is required to address horizontal, vertical, and end-to-end integration enabling a complete awareness through the entire supply chain. In this context, Semantic Web standards and technologies may have a promising role to represent manufacturing knowledge in a machine-interpretable way for enabling communications among heterogeneous Industrial assets. This paper proposes an integration of Semantic Web models available at state of the art for implementing a5C architecture mainly targeted to collect and process semantic data stream in a way that would unlock the potentiality of data yield in a smart manufacturing environment. The analysis of key industrial ontologies and semantic technologies allows us to instantiate an example scenario for monitoring Overall Equipment Effectiveness(OEE). The solution uses the SOSA ontology for representing the semantic datastream. Then, C-SPARQL queries are defined for periodically carrying out useful KPIs to address the proposed aim.
Complying with the EU Regulation on multimodal transportation services requires sharing data on the National Access Points in one of the standards (e.g., NeTEx and SIRI) indicated by the European Commission. These standards are complex and of limited practical adoption. This means that datasets are natively expressed in other formats and require a data translation process for full compliance. This paper describes the solution to turn the authoritative data of three different transport stakeholders from Italy and Spain into a format compliant with EU standards by means of Semantic Web technologies. Our solution addresses the challenge and also contributes to build a multi-modal transport Knowledge Graph of interlinked and interoperable information that enables intelligent querying and exploration, as well as facilitates the design of added-value services.
Knowledge graphs are concurrently published and edited in the Web of data. Hence they may overlap, which makes key the task that consists in matching their content. This task encompasses the identification, within and across knowledge graphs, of nodes that are equivalent, more specific, or weakly related. In this article, we propose to match nodes of a knowledge graph by (i) learning node embeddings with Graph Convolutional Networks such that similar nodes have low distances in the embedding space, and (ii) clustering nodes based on their embeddings. We experimented this approach on a biomedical knowledge graph and particularly investigated the interplay between formal semantics and GCN models with the two following main focuses. Firstly, we applied various inference rules associated with domain knowledge, independently or combined, before learning node embeddings, and we measured the improvements in matching results. Secondly, while our GCN model is agnostic to the exact alignment relations (e.g., equivalence, weak similarity), we observed that distances in the embedding space are coherent with the "strength" of these different relations (e.g., smaller distances for equivalences), somehow corresponding to their rediscovery by the model.
Dr Hafiz Farooq Ahmad is an Associate Professor at the College of Computer Sciences and Information Technology (CCSIT), King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. He holds a PhD in Distributed Computing from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. He has research interest in semantics systems, machine learning, health informatics and web application security. He is the pioneer for Semantic Web Application Firewall (SWAF) in cooperation with DTS Inc Japan in 2010. He contributed in agent cites project, a European funded research and development project for agent systems.
Knowledge Graphs (KGs) have made a qualitative leap and effected a real revolution in knowledge representation. This is leveraged by the underlying structure of the KG which underpins a better comprehension, reasoning and interpreting of knowledge for both human and machine. Therefore, KGs continue to be used as a main driver to tackle a plethora of real-life problems in dissimilar domains. However, there is no consensus on a plausible and inclusive definition to domain KG. Further, in conjunction with several limitations and deficiencies, various domain KG construction approaches are far from perfection. This survey is the first to provide an inclusive definition to the notion of domain KG. Also, a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art approaches drawn from academic works relevant to seven dissimilar domains of knowledge is provided. The scrutiny of the current approaches reveals a correlated array of limitations and deficiencies. The set of improvements to address the limitations of the current approaches are introduced followed by recommendations and opportunities for future research directions.
The continuous growth of scientific literature brings innovations and, at the same time, raises new challenges. One of them is related to the fact that its analysis has become difficult due to the high volume of published papers for which manual effort for annotations and management is required. Novel technological infrastructures are needed to help researchers, research policy makers, and companies to time-efficiently browse, analyse, and forecast scientific research. Knowledge graphs i.e., large networks of entities and relationships, have proved to be effective solution in this space. Scientific knowledge graphs focus on the scholarly domain and typically contain metadata describing research publications such as authors, venues, organizations, research topics, and citations. However, the current generation of knowledge graphs lacks of an explicit representation of the knowledge presented in the research papers. As such, in this paper, we present a new architecture that takes advantage of Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning methods for extracting entities and relationships from research publications and integrates them in a large-scale knowledge graph. Within this research work, we i) tackle the challenge of knowledge extraction by employing several state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing and Text Mining tools, ii) describe an approach for integrating entities and relationships generated by these tools, iii) show the advantage of such an hybrid system over alternative approaches, and vi) as a chosen use case, we generated a scientific knowledge graph including 109,105 triples, extracted from 26,827 abstracts of papers within the Semantic Web domain. As our approach is general and can be applied to any domain, we expect that it can facilitate the management, analysis, dissemination, and processing of scientific knowledge.