The World Wide Web changed the way we live our lives, most notably in the ways we now share, consume and find information. There are many more webpages now than there are people, and links connect these webpages to each other in a giant network that is accessible from your favorite browser.
A downside of this success is that now there’s too much information, so much in fact, that we need machines to intelligently read these webpages and answer our questions. The Semantic Web is a movement and research community that brings together experts from different areas, examples being natural language processing, ontologies, databases, social media, networks and logic, to realize the vision of making the Web machine-readable.
Why is this such a difficult problem? The main reason is that much of the Web, even today, is in a natural language like English or French. These languages are very ambiguous, but we humans have a knack for understanding them due to a variety of factors, not the least of which is our immense store of background knowledge and common sense. Machines are not yet capable of understanding English at the same level as an adult human being, though impressive progress is being made.
To overcome this problem, the Semantic Web presents a vision of the Web as an interlinked network of concepts, relationships and entities, rather than an interlinked network of ‘natural’ webpages. Intelligent systems, often called ‘agents’, can consume the Semantic Web and answer complex questions that now require human labor. The research in the Semantic Web also helps search; e.g. the Google Knowledge Graph, which uses Semantic Web technology, can help you to answer some of your questions without even clicking on a link!
In this chapter, we give an introduction to symbolic artificial intelligence (AI) and discuss its relation and application to multimedia. We begin by defining what symbolic AI is, what distinguishes it from non-symbolic approaches, such as machine learning, and how it can used in the construction of advanced multimedia applications. We then introduce description logic (DL) and use it to discuss symbolic representation and reasoning. DL is the logical underpinning of OWL, the most successful family of ontology languages. After discussing DL, we present OWL and related Semantic Web technologies, such as RDF and SPARQL.
We present, FT-SWRL, a fuzzy temporal extension to the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL), which combines fuzzy theories based on the valid-time temporal model to provide a standard approach for modeling imprecise temporal domain knowledge in OWL ontologies. The proposal introduces a fuzzy temporal model for the semantic web, which is syntactically defined as a fuzzy temporal SWRL ontology (SWRL-FTO) with a new set of fuzzy temporal SWRL built-ins for defining their semantics. The SWRL-FTO hierarchically defines the necessary linguistic terminologies and variables for the fuzzy temporal model. An example model demonstrating the usefulness of the fuzzy temporal SWRL built-ins to model imprecise temporal information is also represented. Fuzzification process of interval-based temporal logic is further discussed as a reasoning paradigm for our FT-SWRL rules, with the aim of achieving a complete OWL-based fuzzy temporal reasoning. Literature review on fuzzy temporal representation approaches, both within and without the use of ontologies, led to the conclusion that the FT-SWRL model can authoritatively serve as a formal specification for handling imprecise temporal expressions on the semantic web.
The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) has been recently introduced as a W3C recommendation to define constraints that can be validated against RDF graphs. Interactions of SHACL with other Semantic Web technologies, such as ontologies or reasoners, is a matter of ongoing research. In this paper we study the interaction of a subset of SHACL with inference rules expressed in datalog. On the one hand, SHACL constraints can be used to define a "schema" for graph datasets. On the other hand, inference rules can lead to the discovery of new facts that do not match the original schema. Given a set of SHACL constraints and a set of datalog rules, we present a method to detect which constraints could be violated by the application of the inference rules on some graph instance of the schema, and update the original schema, i.e, the set of SHACL constraints, in order to capture the new facts that can be inferred. We provide theoretical and experimental results of the various components of our approach.
Automatically monitoring and supporting healthy lifestyle is a recent research trend, fostered by the availability of low-cost monitoring devices, and it can significantly contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases deriving from incorrect diet and lack of physical activity. In this talk I will present the HORUS.AI platform: an AI-based platform built upon the integration of semantic web technologies and persuasive techniques for motivating people to adopt healthy lifestyle or for supporting them to cope with the self-management of chronic diseases. The platform collects data from users' devices, explicit users' inputs, or from the external environment (e.g. Interactive dialogues are used for proposing set of challenges to users that, through a mobile application, are able to provide the required information and to receive contextual motivational messages helping them to achieve the proposed goals. HORUS.AI is constituted by two main layers: the Knowledge and the Dialog-Based Persuasive layers.
Nature has been an inspiration for many innovations throughout history. Neuroscience and the brain have inspired the development of deep learning theories and applications and led to great performances of artificial vision systems. However, the well- known neuroscience theories have not yet been utilized by artificial vision, not to mention the undiscovered ones. Feature Parallelism Model is widely inspired by nature. It is a vision model that conceptualizes unutilized science facts about the human visual system such as the Feature Integration Theory of visual attention "FIT".
Manually checking models for compliance against building regulation is a time-consuming task for architects and construction engineers. There is thus a need for algorithms that process information from construction projects and report non-compliant elements. Still automated code-compliance checking raises several obstacles. Building regulations are usually published as human readable texts and their content is often ambiguous or incomplete. Also, the vocabulary used for expressing such regulations is very different from the vocabularies used to express Building Information Models (BIM). Furthermore, the high level of details associated to BIM-contained geometries induces complex calculations. Finally, the level of complexity of the IFC standard also hinders the automation of IFC processing tasks. Model chart, formal rules and pre-processors approach allows translating construction regulations into semantic queries. We further demonstrate the usefulness of this approach through several use cases. We argue our approach is a step forward in bridging the gap between regulation texts and automated checking algorithms. Finally with the recent building ontology BOT recommended by the W3C Linked Building Data Community Group, we identify perspectives for standardizing and extending our approach.
Digital agriculture increasingly relies on the generation of large quantity of images. These images are processed with machine learning techniques to speed up the identification of objects, their classification, visualization, and interpretation. However, images must comply with the FAIR principles to facilitate their access, reuse, and interoperability. As stated in recent paper authored by the Planteome team (Trigkakis et al, 2018), "Plant researchers could benefit greatly from a trained classification model that predicts image annotations with a high degree of accuracy." In this third Ontologies Community of Practice webinar, Justin Preece, Senior Faculty Research Assistant Oregon State University, presents the module developed by the Planteome project using the Bio-Image Semantic Query User Environment (BISQUE), an online image analysis and storage platform of Cyverse.
Numerous success use cases involving deep learning have recently started to be propagated to the Semantic Web. Approaches range from utilizing structured knowledge in the training process of neural networks to enriching such architectures with ontological reasoning mechanisms. Bridging the neural-symbolic gap by joining deep learning and Semantic Web not only holds the potential of improving performance but also of opening up new avenues of research. This editorial introduces the Semantic Web Journal special issue on Semantic Deep Learning, which brings together Semantic Web and deep learning research. After a general introduction to the topic and a brief overview of recent contributions, we continue to introduce the submissions published in this special issue.