"Image understanding (IU) is the research area concerned with the design and experimentation of computer systems that integrate explicit models of a visual problem domain with one or more methods for extracting features from images and one or more methods for matching features with models using a control structure. Given a goal, or a reason for looking at a particular scene, these systems produce descriptions of both the images and the world scenes that the images represent."
– Image Understanding, by J.K. Tsotos. In Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence. Stuart C. Shapiro, editor. 1987. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Do you actually know what is the exact difference between these three terms, if not don't worry I'll explain you the exact difference in the simplest way. In image classification, we attempt to classify a complete image as belonging to one of the classes. As an example: If we are given an image of a cat, the image classification model predicts whether or not the image is of a cat. Image classification with localization involves not only identifying the class of an image but also determining the location of that object inside the image. If there are two or more objects inside one image, we draw bounding boxes around the objects to identify their location.
Lekadir, Karim, Osuala, Richard, Gallin, Catherine, Lazrak, Noussair, Kushibar, Kaisar, Tsakou, Gianna, Aussó, Susanna, Alberich, Leonor Cerdá, Marias, Konstantinos, Tskinakis, Manolis, Colantonio, Sara, Papanikolaou, Nickolas, Salahuddin, Zohaib, Woodruff, Henry C, Lambin, Philippe, Martí-Bonmatí, Luis
The recent advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) combined with the extensive amount of data generated by today's clinical systems, has led to the development of imaging AI solutions across the whole value chain of medical imaging, including image reconstruction, medical image segmentation, image-based diagnosis and treatment planning. Notwithstanding the successes and future potential of AI in medical imaging, many stakeholders are concerned of the potential risks and ethical implications of imaging AI solutions, which are perceived as complex, opaque, and difficult to comprehend, utilise, and trust in critical clinical applications. Despite these concerns and risks, there are currently no concrete guidelines and best practices for guiding future AI developments in medical imaging towards increased trust, safety and adoption. To bridge this gap, this paper introduces a careful selection of guiding principles drawn from the accumulated experiences, consensus, and best practices from five large European projects on AI in Health Imaging. These guiding principles are named FUTURE-AI and its building blocks consist of (i) Fairness, (ii) Universality, (iii) Traceability, (iv) Usability, (v) Robustness and (vi) Explainability. In a step-by-step approach, these guidelines are further translated into a framework of concrete recommendations for specifying, developing, evaluating, and deploying technically, clinically and ethically trustworthy AI solutions into clinical practice.
Multimodal classification research has been gaining popularity in many domains that collect more data from multiple sources including satellite imagery, biometrics, and medicine. However, the lack of consistent terminology and architectural descriptions makes it difficult to compare different existing solutions. We address these challenges by proposing a new taxonomy for describing such systems based on trends found in recent publications on multimodal classification. Many of the most difficult aspects of unimodal classification have not yet been fully addressed for multimodal datasets including big data, class imbalance, and instance level difficulty. We also provide a discussion of these challenges and future directions.
Signal capture stands in the forefront to perceive and understand the environment and thus imaging plays the pivotal role in mobile vision. Recent explosive progresses in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have shown great potential to develop advanced mobile platforms with new imaging devices. Traditional imaging systems based on the "capturing images first and processing afterwards" mechanism cannot meet this unprecedented demand. Differently, Computational Imaging (CI) systems are designed to capture high-dimensional data in an encoded manner to provide more information for mobile vision systems.Thanks to AI, CI can now be used in real systems by integrating deep learning algorithms into the mobile vision platform to achieve the closed loop of intelligent acquisition, processing and decision making, thus leading to the next revolution of mobile vision.Starting from the history of mobile vision using digital cameras, this work first introduces the advances of CI in diverse applications and then conducts a comprehensive review of current research topics combining CI and AI. Motivated by the fact that most existing studies only loosely connect CI and AI (usually using AI to improve the performance of CI and only limited works have deeply connected them), in this work, we propose a framework to deeply integrate CI and AI by using the example of self-driving vehicles with high-speed communication, edge computing and traffic planning. Finally, we outlook the future of CI plus AI by investigating new materials, brain science and new computing techniques to shed light on new directions of mobile vision systems.
Image copy detection is challenging and appealing topic in computer vision and signal processing. Recent advancements in multimedia have made distribution of image across the global easy and fast: that leads to many other issues such as forgery and image copy retrieval. Local keypoint descriptors such as SIFT are used to represent the images, and based on those descriptors matching, images are matched and retrieved. Features are quantized so that searching/matching may be made feasible for large databases at the cost of accuracy loss. In this paper, we propose binary feature that is obtained by quantizing the SIFT into binary, and rank list is re-examined to remove the false positives. Experiments on challenging dataset shows the gain in accuracy and time.
Vision-based depth estimation is a key feature in autonomous systems, which often relies on a single camera or several independent ones. In such a monocular setup, dense depth is obtained with either additional input from one or several expensive LiDARs, e.g., with 64 beams, or camera-only methods, which suffer from scale-ambiguity and infinite-depth problems. In this paper, we propose a new alternative of densely estimating metric depth by combining a monocular camera with a light-weight LiDAR, e.g., with 4 beams, typical of today's automotive-grade mass-produced laser scanners. Inspired by recent self-supervised methods, we introduce a novel framework, called LiDARTouch, to estimate dense depth maps from monocular images with the help of ``touches'' of LiDAR, i.e., without the need for dense ground-truth depth. In our setup, the minimal LiDAR input contributes on three different levels: as an additional model's input, in a self-supervised LiDAR reconstruction objective function, and to estimate changes of pose (a key component of self-supervised depth estimation architectures). Our LiDARTouch framework achieves new state of the art in self-supervised depth estimation on the KITTI dataset, thus supporting our choices of integrating the very sparse LiDAR signal with other visual features. Moreover, we show that the use of a few-beam LiDAR alleviates scale ambiguity and infinite-depth issues that camera-only methods suffer from. We also demonstrate that methods from the fully-supervised depth-completion literature can be adapted to a self-supervised regime with a minimal LiDAR signal.
Transformers have become the dominant model class in the last few years for large data, but their quadratic complexity in terms of sequence length has plagued them until now. Fastformer claims to be the fastest and most performant linear attention variant, able to consume long contexts at once. This is achieved by a combination of additive attention and elementwise products. OUTLINE: 0:00 - Intro & Outline 2:15 - Fastformer description 5:20 - Baseline: Classic Attention 10:00 - Fastformer architecture 12:50 - Additive Attention 18:05 - Query-Key element-wise multiplication 21:35 - Redundant modules in Fastformer 25:00 - Problems with the architecture 27:30 - Is this even attention? Abstract: Transformer is a powerful model for text understanding.
Breast histology image classification is a crucial step in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In breast pathological diagnosis, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have demonstrated great success using digitized histology slides. However, tissue classification is still challenging due to the high visual variability of the large-sized digitized samples and the lack of contextual information. In this paper, we propose a novel CNN, called Multi-level Context and Uncertainty aware (MCUa) dynamic deep learning ensemble model.MCUamodel consists of several multi-level context-aware models to learn the spatial dependency between image patches in a layer-wise fashion. It exploits the high sensitivity to the multi-level contextual information using an uncertainty quantification component to accomplish a novel dynamic ensemble model.MCUamodelhas achieved a high accuracy of 98.11% on a breast cancer histology image dataset. Experimental results show the superior effectiveness of the proposed solution compared to the state-of-the-art histology classification models.
Bommasani, Rishi, Hudson, Drew A., Adeli, Ehsan, Altman, Russ, Arora, Simran, von Arx, Sydney, Bernstein, Michael S., Bohg, Jeannette, Bosselut, Antoine, Brunskill, Emma, Brynjolfsson, Erik, Buch, Shyamal, Card, Dallas, Castellon, Rodrigo, Chatterji, Niladri, Chen, Annie, Creel, Kathleen, Davis, Jared Quincy, Demszky, Dora, Donahue, Chris, Doumbouya, Moussa, Durmus, Esin, Ermon, Stefano, Etchemendy, John, Ethayarajh, Kawin, Fei-Fei, Li, Finn, Chelsea, Gale, Trevor, Gillespie, Lauren, Goel, Karan, Goodman, Noah, Grossman, Shelby, Guha, Neel, Hashimoto, Tatsunori, Henderson, Peter, Hewitt, John, Ho, Daniel E., Hong, Jenny, Hsu, Kyle, Huang, Jing, Icard, Thomas, Jain, Saahil, Jurafsky, Dan, Kalluri, Pratyusha, Karamcheti, Siddharth, Keeling, Geoff, Khani, Fereshte, Khattab, Omar, Kohd, Pang Wei, Krass, Mark, Krishna, Ranjay, Kuditipudi, Rohith, Kumar, Ananya, Ladhak, Faisal, Lee, Mina, Lee, Tony, Leskovec, Jure, Levent, Isabelle, Li, Xiang Lisa, Li, Xuechen, Ma, Tengyu, Malik, Ali, Manning, Christopher D., Mirchandani, Suvir, Mitchell, Eric, Munyikwa, Zanele, Nair, Suraj, Narayan, Avanika, Narayanan, Deepak, Newman, Ben, Nie, Allen, Niebles, Juan Carlos, Nilforoshan, Hamed, Nyarko, Julian, Ogut, Giray, Orr, Laurel, Papadimitriou, Isabel, Park, Joon Sung, Piech, Chris, Portelance, Eva, Potts, Christopher, Raghunathan, Aditi, Reich, Rob, Ren, Hongyu, Rong, Frieda, Roohani, Yusuf, Ruiz, Camilo, Ryan, Jack, Ré, Christopher, Sadigh, Dorsa, Sagawa, Shiori, Santhanam, Keshav, Shih, Andy, Srinivasan, Krishnan, Tamkin, Alex, Taori, Rohan, Thomas, Armin W., Tramèr, Florian, Wang, Rose E., Wang, William, Wu, Bohan, Wu, Jiajun, Wu, Yuhuai, Xie, Sang Michael, Yasunaga, Michihiro, You, Jiaxuan, Zaharia, Matei, Zhang, Michael, Zhang, Tianyi, Zhang, Xikun, Zhang, Yuhui, Zheng, Lucia, Zhou, Kaitlyn, Liang, Percy
AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.
In this paper, we focus on recognizing 3D shapes from arbitrary views, i.e., arbitrary numbers and positions of viewpoints. It is a challenging and realistic setting for view-based 3D shape recognition. We propose a canonical view representation to tackle this challenge. We first transform the original features of arbitrary views to a fixed number of view features, dubbed canonical view representation, by aligning the arbitrary view features to a set of learnable reference view features using optimal transport. In this way, each 3D shape with arbitrary views is represented by a fixed number of canonical view features, which are further aggregated to generate a rich and robust 3D shape representation for shape recognition. We also propose a canonical view feature separation constraint to enforce that the view features in canonical view representation can be embedded into scattered points in a Euclidean space. Experiments on the ModelNet40, ScanObjectNN, and RGBD datasets show that our method achieves competitive results under the fixed viewpoint settings, and significantly outperforms the applicable methods under the arbitrary view setting.