"AI systems–like people–must often act despite partial and uncertain information. First, the information received may be unreliable (e.g., a patient may mis-remember when a disease started, or may not have noticed a symptom that is important to a diagnosis). In addition, rules connecting real-world events can never include all the factors that might determine whether their conclusions really apply (e.g., the correctness of basing a diagnosis on a lab test depends whether there were conditions that might have caused a false positive, on the test being done correctly, on the results being associated with the right patient, etc.) Thus in order to draw useful conclusions, AI systems must be able to reason about the probability of events, given their current knowledge."
– from David Leake, Reasoning Under Uncertainty
In many projects I carried out, companies, despite having fantastic AI business ideas, display a tendency to slowly become frustrated when they realize that they do not have enough data… However, solutions do exist! The purpose of this article is to briefly introduce you to some of them (the ones that are proven effective in my practice) rather than to list all existing solutions. The problem of data scarcity is very important since data are at the core of any AI project. The size of a dataset is often responsible for poor performances in ML projects. Most of the time, data related issues are the main reason why great AI projects cannot be accomplished.
Bayesian inference is a major problem in statistics that is also encountered in many machine learning methods. For example, Gaussian mixture models, for classification, or Latent Dirichlet Allocation, for topic modelling, are both graphical models requiring to solve such a problem when fitting the data. Meanwhile, it can be noticed that Bayesian inference problems can sometimes be very difficult to solve depending on the model settings (assumptions, dimensionality, …). In large problems, exact solutions require, indeed, heavy computations that often become intractable and some approximation techniques have to be used to overcome this issue and build fast and scalable systems. In this post we will discuss the two main methods that can be used to tackle the Bayesian inference problem: Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), that is a sampling based approach, and Variational Inference (VI), that is an approximation based approach.
The motive behind Creating this repo is to feel the fear of mathematics and do what ever you want to do in Machine Learning, Deep Learning and other fields of AI . So, try this Code in your python notebook which is provided in edx Course. In this Repo you will also learn the Libraries which are essential like numpy, pandas, matplotlib... I am going to upload new material when i find those material useful, you can also help me in keeping this repo fresh. Selecting the right algorithm which includes giving considerations to accuracy, training time, model complexity, number of parameters and number of features.
"Machine Learning foners Second Edition has been written and designed for absolute beginners. This means plain-English explanations and no coding experience required. Where core algorithms are introduced, clear explanations and visual examples are added to make it easy and engaging to follow along at home. This major new edition features many topics not covered in the First Edition, including Cross Validation, Data Scrubbing and Ensemble Modeling."
Classical statistics is said to follow the frequentist approach because it interprets probability as the relative frequency of an event over the long run that is, after observing many trials. In the context of probabilities, an event is a combination of one or more elementary outcomes of an experiment, such as any of six equal results in rolls of two dice or an asset price dropping by 10 percent or more on a given day.
Probability is the cornerstone of Artificial Intelligence. The management of uncertainty is key to many applications of AI, such as machine learning, filtering, robotics, computer vision, NLP, search and so on. And no other sector is the management of uncertainty as crucial as it is in the health sector. At first glance, the false-negative seems more devastating. Of course, a false allergy test-result has the likely outcome of a GP administering a drug to you that could cause life-threatening issues.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) technologies have become key innovation accelerators for organizations looking for that extra edge. Machine Learning books are a great starting point for enthusiasts who want to transition to these in-demand roles. In this article we list down top machine learning books to get you started on ML journey. The increased usage of machine learning in enterprises has driven up the need for skilled professionals. Machine learning models serve up Netflix recommendations, Facebooks News Feed leverages machine learning to drum up personalized content, and Twitter utilizes machine learning to rank tweets and boost engagements.
The tragedy happened to the AirFrance 447 more than 10 years ago, in 2009. The flight took off in Rio de Janeiro and was planned to land in Paris. It suddenly disappeared in the middle of the Atlantic ocean without any warning. Immediately, rescuers reached the zone and what they found were just some wreckage and corpse. All 228 people onboard died in the crash.
Offered by Duke University. In this Specialization, you will learn to analyze and visualize data in R and create reproducible data analysis reports, demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the unified nature of statistical inference, perform frequentist and Bayesian statistical inference and modeling to understand natural phenomena and make data-based decisions, communicate statistical results correctly, effectively, and in context without relying on statistical jargon, critique data-based claims and evaluated data-based decisions, and wrangle and visualize data with R packages for data analysis. You will produce a portfolio of data analysis projects from the Specialization that demonstrates mastery of statistical data analysis from exploratory analysis to inference to modeling, suitable for applying for statistical analysis or data scientist positions.
Decision theory and nonmonotonic logics are formalisms that can be employed to represent and solve problems of planning under uncertainty. We analyze the usefulness of these two approaches by establishing a simple correspondence between the two formalisms. The analysis indicates that planning using nonmonotonic logic comprises two decision-theoretic concepts: probabilities (degrees of belief in planning hypotheses) and utilities (degrees of preference for planning outcomes). We present and discuss examples of the following lessons from this decision-theoretic view of nonmonotonic reasoning: (1) decision theory and nonmonotonic logics are intended to solve different components of the planning problem; (2) when considered in the context of planning under uncertainty, nonmonotonic logics do not retain the domain-independent characteristics of classical (monotonic) logic; and (3) because certain nonmonotonic programming paradigms (for example, frame-based inheritance, nonmonotonic logics) are inherently problem specific, they might be inappropriate for use in solving certain types of planning problems. We discuss how these conclusions affect several current AI research issues.