"AI systems–like people–must often act despite partial and uncertain information. First, the information received may be unreliable (e.g., a patient may mis-remember when a disease started, or may not have noticed a symptom that is important to a diagnosis). In addition, rules connecting real-world events can never include all the factors that might determine whether their conclusions really apply (e.g., the correctness of basing a diagnosis on a lab test depends whether there were conditions that might have caused a false positive, on the test being done correctly, on the results being associated with the right patient, etc.) Thus in order to draw useful conclusions, AI systems must be able to reason about the probability of events, given their current knowledge."
– from David Leake, Reasoning Under Uncertainty
This article belongs to the series "Probabilistic Deep Learning". This weekly series covers probabilistic approaches to deep learning. The main goal is to extend deep learning models to quantify uncertainty, i.e., know what they do not know. In this article, we will introduce the concept of probabilistic logistic regression, a powerful technique that allows for the inclusion of uncertainty in the prediction process. We will explore how this approach can lead to more robust and accurate predictions, especially in cases where the data is noisy, or the model is overfitting.
The mathematics of least squares would have been so trivial for Gauss that even had he come upon the method he might have passed it over as but one of many, not noticing its true significance until Legendre's book prodded his memory and produced a post facto priority claim. There have been many extraordinary equations that changed the world (whether they were discovered or invented depends on whether you subscribe to mathematical Platonism--I do) but among the 17 equations that changed the world, the legendary Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) wasn't listed among them (though it is heavily related to both the Normal Distribution and Information Theory). It's a shame because the article and tweets referencing the "17 Equations" have been floating around for nearly ten years. So I will tell you about the magic of OLS, a little about its history, some of its extensions, and its applications (yes, to Fintech too). Subscribe for free to receive new posts and support my work.
Machine Learning (ML) is the branch of Artificial Intelligence in which we use algorithms to learn from data provided to make predictions on unseen data. Recently, the demand for Machine Learning engineers has rapidly grown across healthcare, Finance, e-commerce, etc. According to Glassdoor, the median ML Engineer Salary is $131,290 per annum. In 2021, the global ML market was valued at $15.44 billion. It is expected to grow at a significant compound annual growth rate (CAGR) above 38% until 2029.
Abstract: We have constructed a Bayesian neural network able of retrieving tropospheric temperature profiles from rotational Raman-scatter measurements of nitrogen and oxygen and applied it to measurements taken by the RAman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO) in Payerne, Switzerland. We give a detailed description of using a Bayesian method to retrieve temperature profiles including estimates of the uncertainty due to the network weights and the statistical uncertainty of the measurements. We trained our model using lidar measurements under different atmospheric conditions, and we tested our model using measurements not used for training the network. The computed temperature profiles extend over the altitude range of 0.7 km to 6 km. The mean bias estimate of our temperatures relative to the MeteoSwiss standard processing algorithm does not exceed 0.05 K at altitudes below 4.5 km, and does not exceed 0.08 K in an altitude range of 4.5 km to 6 km.
This article belongs to the series "Probabilistic Deep Learning". This weekly series covers probabilistic approaches to deep learning. The main goal is to extend deep learning models to quantify uncertainty, i.e. know what they do not know. The frequentist approach to statistics is based on the idea of repeated sampling and long-run relative frequency. It involves constructing hypotheses about a population and testing them using sample data.
You tagged this question with the tag "Maximum Likelihood". In maximum likelihood estimation you explicitly maximize an objective function (namely the likelihood). It just so happens that for an observation that we assume to be drawn from a Gaussian random variable, the likelihood function usually takes a nice form after you take a logarithm. Then there is usually a leading negation, encouraging the entrepreneurial optimizer to switch away from maximizing the objective to minimizing the negative of objective, or roughly the "cost". For discrete maximum likelihood estimation the "cost" also has another meaningful name since it takes the same form as the euclidean distance in the observation space.
CS 221 ― Artificial Intelligence My twin brother Afshine and I created this set of illustrated Artificial Intelligence cheatsheets covering the content of the CS 221 class, which I TA-ed in Spring 2019 at Stanford. They can (hopefully!) be useful to all future students of this course as well as to anyone else interested in Artificial Intelligence. You can help us translating them on GitHub!
Among various soft computing approaches for time series forecasting, fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) have shown remarkable results as a tool to model and analyze the dynamics of complex systems. FCMs have similarities to recurrent neural networks and can be classified as a neuro-fuzzy method. In other words, FCMs are a mixture of fuzzy logic, neural network, and expert system aspects, which act as a powerful tool for simulating and studying the dynamic behavior of complex systems. The most interesting features are knowledge interpretability, dynamic characteristics and learning capability. The goal of this survey paper is mainly to present an overview on the most relevant and recent FCM-based time series forecasting models proposed in the literature.
Metanomic, a game economics and player analytics company, announced in September the launch of its player analytics platform Thunderstruck, using AI based on Bayesian inference and aiming to revolutionize game developers' use of behavioral data to improve retention and monetization. Metanomic is a software company founded in November 2021 by Theo Priestley, Bronwyn Williams and Evan Pappas. A comprehensive real-time economy-as-a-service platform for developers, it uses patented algorithms to easily deploy plug-and-play, interoperable and scalable game and creator economies ready for web3, metavers and play-and-earn games. The company has secured $2.9 million in pre-seed funding. On May 18, it announced the acquisition of Intoolab AI, a company specializing in Bayesian network-based artificial intelligence, to develop and improve data analysis in video games and on the Web3.
In this article, we aim to provide a literature review of different formulations and approaches to continual reinforcement learning (RL), also known as lifelong or non-stationary RL. We begin by discussing our perspective on why RL is a natural fit for studying continual learning. We then provide a taxonomy of different continual RL formulations by mathematically characterizing two key properties of non-stationarity, namely, the scope and driver non-stationarity. This offers a unified view of various formulations. Next, we review and present a taxonomy of continual RL approaches. We go on to discuss evaluation of continual RL agents, providing an overview of benchmarks used in the literature and important metrics for understanding agent performance. Finally, we highlight open problems and challenges in bridging the gap between the current state of continual RL and findings in neuroscience. While still in its early days, the study of continual RL has the promise to develop better incremental reinforcement learners that can function in increasingly realistic applications where non-stationarity plays a vital role. These include applications such as those in the fields of healthcare, education, logistics, and robotics.