"The problem of giving rules for producing true scientific statements has been replaced by the problem of finding efficient heuristic rules for culling the reasonable candidates for an explanation from an appropriate set of possible candidates [and finding methods for constructing the candidates]."
– B. Buchanan, quoted in Lindley Darden. Recent Work in Computational Scientific Discovery.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has underscored the critical need to better understand the human immune system and how to unleash its power to develop vaccines and therapeutics. Much of our knowledge of the immune system has accrued from studies in mice, yet vaccines and drugs that work effectively in mice do not always translate into humans. Pulendran and Davis review recent technological advances that have facilitated the study of the immune system in humans. They discuss new insights and how these can affect the development of drugs and vaccines in the modern era. Science , this issue p. [eaay4014] ### BACKGROUND The mammalian immune system is a remarkable sensory system for the detection and neutralization of pathogens. History is replete with the devastating effects of plagues, and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a defining global health crisis of our time. Although the development of effective vaccines has saved many lives, the basic workings of the immune system are complex and require the development of animal models, such as inbred mice. Indeed, research in mice has been enormously productive, and the tremendous insights gleaned have resulted in many Nobel prizes and other accolades. However, past results are not necessarily a reliable guide to the future, and a notable limitation of animal models has been their failure to accurately model some human diseases and their inability to predict human immune responses in many cases. With regard to inbred mice, which have been the principal model of choice for immunology, this is likely due to the compromises that were necessary to create a more tractable and reproducible system for experimentation, such as genetic uniformity and lack of pathogen exposure, as well as the fact that mice are evolutionarily quite distinct. These considerations suggest that direct studies of the human immune system are likely to be extremely rewarding, both from a scientific and a medical perspective. ### ADVANCES In the past decade there has been an explosion of new approaches and technologies to explore the human immune system with unprecedented precision. Insights into the human immune response to vaccination, cancers, and viral infections such as COVID-19 have come from high-throughput “omics” technologies that measure the behavior of genes, mRNA (single-cell transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics), metabolites (metabolomics), cells (mass cytometry), and epigenetic modifications (ATAC-seq), coupled with computational approaches. ### OUTLOOK Sydney Brenner remarked in 2008, “We don’t have to look for a model organism anymore. Because we are the model organisms.” We propose that studying the immune system in humans, who are genetically diverse and afflicted by a multitude of diseases, offers both a direct link to medicine (i.e., “translation”) and the very real prospect of discovering fundamentally new human biology. New approaches and technology are now making this area much more approachable, but profiling immunity in humans is but the first step. Computational mining of the data and biological validation in animal models or human organoids are essential next steps, in an iterative cycle that seeks to bridge fundamental and applied science, as well as mouse and human immunology, in a seamless continuum of scientific discovery and translational medicine. This will represent a new paradigm for accelerating the development of vaccines and therapeutics. ![Figure] Probing the human immune response to viral infections. Systems biology techniques can be used to probe the human immune response to viral infections and can define molecular signatures that predict disease severity and illuminate the underlying mechanisms of disease. ILLUSTRATION: KELLIE HOLOSKI/ SCIENCE Although the development of effective vaccines has saved countless lives from infectious diseases, the basic workings of the human immune system are complex and have required the development of animal models, such as inbred mice, to define mechanisms of immunity. More recently, new strategies and technologies have been developed to directly explore the human immune system with unprecedented precision. We discuss how these approaches are advancing our mechanistic understanding of human immunology and are facilitating the development of vaccines and therapeutics for infection, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. : /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aay4014 : pending:yes
"I did not have lines in the resume that showed my ML expertise. I did not have a Data Science industry experience or relevant papers. For this week's ML practitioner's series, Analytics India Magazine got in touch with Vladimir Iglovikov, an ex-Spetsnaz, theoretical physicist and also a Kaggle GrandMaster. In this exclusive interview, he shares valuable information from his journey in the world of data science. After a brief stint in Russian special forces, Iglovikov enrolled for the Master's programme in theoretical Physics at the St.Petersburg State University whose distinguished alumni include President Vladimir Putin. In September 2010, Iglovikov moved to California to pursue a PhD in Physics from UC Davis and on completion of the degree, he moved to Silicon Valley in the summer of 2015. Currently, Iglovikov works as Sr. Software Engineer at Lyft, a ride-sharing company that operates in the United States and Canada. His work is centered around building robust machine learning models for autonomous vehicles at Lyft, Level5. Post PhD, Iglovikov had two options in hand. One was to pursue postdoc, and the other was to get into the industry as a software engineer. His career took a new turn when one of his friends introduced him to the world of data science. "I attended a lecture where the presenter talked about Data Science as the 4th paradigm of scientific discovery.
I am predicting the selling price of the car based on various features of the cars, including the present price of the cars. I will be using Multiple Linear Regression for building The model. Let's dive under to understand the variables and use the correlation matrix to make the process easy. Now let's check if we have Outliers in our data. So Rather then removing the outliers values we would like to take log of them.
Perhaps many people are like me in that hearing the word "machine learning" for the first time brings forth images of Skynet from The Terminator movies or Haley Joel Osment's character from the Steven Spielberg's film A.I. Artificial Intelligence. However, machine learning has now become a regular part of our vernacular when it comes to predictive modeling in many conditions. Ramgopal et al use machine learning methods to derive and validate a new prediction model for risk stratification of febrile infants 60 days of age. Using various machine learning approaches, the authors developed a prediction model with high sensitivity and specificity compared with recent prediction models for febrile infants. So, are machine learning models the new paradigm for risk stratification of febrile infants? The results are intriguing, particularly the high specificity of the model, but further work must be done, as explained nicely by Chamberlain et al in an accompanying commentary (10.1542/peds.2020-012203).
Hundreds of astronomers have warned that satellite constellations like Elon Musk's Starlink network could prove "extremely impactful" to astronomy and scientific progress. A report by the Satellite Constellations 1 (Satcon1) workshop found that that constellations of bright satellites will fundamentally change ground-based optical and infrared astronomy and could impact the appearance of the night's sky for stargazers around the world. The research brought together more than 250 astronomers, satellite operators and dark-sky advocates to better understand the astronomical impact of large satellite constellations. "We find that the worst-case constellation designs prove extremely impactful to the most severely affected science programs," stated the report, which was published on Tuesday. Elon Musk's SpaceX plans to launch more than 30,000 Starlink satellites in order to beam high-speed internet down to Earth.
Sifting effectively through this vast chemical space would allow us to rapidly find a specific molecule and create a new material with the properties we want. This could unlock endless possibilities of material design – for life-saving drugs, better batteries, more advanced prosthetic limbs or faster and safer cars, advancing healthcare, manufacturing, defense, biotechnology, communications and nearly every other industry. This design ability would replace our centuries-old reliance on serendipity in material discovery – something we've been through with plastics, Teflon, Velcro, Vaseline, vulcanized rubber and so many other breakthroughs. Even graphene – the atom-thick layer of carbon and the thinnest, strongest material known – was discovered by (informed) chance, when physicist Kostya Novoselov found discarded Scotch tape in his lab's waste basket.
Dr. Parshotam S. Manhas We're entering a new world in which data may be more important than software -Tim O'Reilly Data Science is the technology that has emerged out as one of the most popular fields of 21st Century due to the onset of Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning. Data science employs scientific methodologies, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and useful insights across structured and unstructured data in various forms. It is in fact an empirical concept to amalgam statistics, data analysis, machine learning and their related methods to analyze actual phenomena with data. Data is considered as a'fourth paradigm' of science after empirical, theoretical, computational science and everything about science is changing because of the impact of information technology and the humongous data explosion. Data scientists work as decision makers and are mainly responsible for analyzing and handling a large amount of data. Data science makes use of several statistical procedures ranging from data transformations, data modeling, statistical operations to machine learning modeling.
Among the many departments and agencies within the United States federal government, the US Department of Energy (DOE) stands out as one of the most science, technology, and innovation-focused. This should come as little surprise to those who know the DOE's storied history with its breakthrough labs, world-leading research institutions, and highly educated staff. Since World War II, the DOE has been at the forefront of most of the groundbreaking and world-changing revolutions in science and technology including the development and harnessing of nuclear energy, innovations in genomics including the DOE initiative Human Genome Project, work in high-performance computing, and many other research-oriented efforts. Cheryl Ingstad, Director of the AI and Technology Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) In fact, the DOE supports more research in the physical sciences than any other US federal agency, providing more than 40% of US funding in computing, physics, chemistry, materials science, and other area through a system of national laboratories including Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Labs, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and dozens more institutions. Until very recently, the DOE also ran the world's top two fastest supercomputers: Summit and Sierra.
COVID-19 has dealt the world a twin crisis. We face not only our greatest global health shock but also our greatest economic shock in a century. With these dual crises comes a twin watershed moment. First, whether for school, work, health or keeping in touch with family and friends, we have realized the deep value of digital technologies. Second, the appetite for change (arguably a more challenging shift to achieve) has grown significantly.