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Rule-Based Reasoning


The Business Rules the Trump Administration Is Racing to Finish

NYT > Economy

Mr. Trump signed an executive order on Tuesday banning transactions with eight Chinese software applications, including Alipay. It was the latest escalation of the president's economic war with China. Details and the start of the ban will fall to Mr. Biden, who could decide not to follow through on the idea. Separately, the Trump administration has also banned the import of some cotton from the Xinjiang region, where China has detained vast numbers of people who are members of ethnic minorities and forced them to work in fields and factories. In another move, the administration prohibited several Chinese companies, including the chip maker SMIC and the drone maker DJI, from buying American products.


Saying No is An Art: Contextualized Fallback Responses for Unanswerable Dialogue Queries

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Despite end-to-end neural systems making significant progress in the last decade for task-oriented as well as chit-chat based dialogue systems, most dialogue systems rely on hybrid approaches which use a combination of rule-based, retrieval and generative approaches for generating a set of ranked responses. Such dialogue systems need to rely on a fallback mechanism to respond to out-of-domain or novel user queries which are not answerable within the scope of the dialog system. While, dialog systems today rely on static and unnatural responses like "I don't know the answer to that question" or "I'm not sure about that", we design a neural approach which generates responses which are contextually aware with the user query as well as say no to the user. Such customized responses provide paraphrasing ability and contextualization as well as improve the interaction with the user and reduce dialogue monotonicity. Our simple approach makes use of rules over dependency parses and a text-to-text transformer fine-tuned on synthetic data of question-response pairs generating highly relevant, grammatical as well as diverse questions. We perform automatic and manual evaluations to demonstrate the efficacy of the system.


UNSUPERVISED LEARNING

#artificialintelligence

Unsupervised learning is where only the input data is present and no corresponding output variable is there. Unsupervised learning has a lot of potential ranging anywhere from fraud detection to stock trading. Clustering: A clustering problem is where you want to discover the inherent groupings in the data, such as grouping customers by purchasing behavior. Association: An association rule learning problem is where you want to discover rules that describe a large portion of your data. Association rules mining are used to identify new and interesting insights between different objects in a set, frequent pattern in transactional data or any sort of relational database.


OpenHoldem: An Open Toolkit for Large-Scale Imperfect-Information Game Research

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Owning to the unremitting efforts by a few institutes, significant progress has recently been made in designing superhuman AIs in No-limit Texas Hold'em (NLTH), the primary testbed for large-scale imperfect-information game research. However, it remains challenging for new researchers to study this problem since there are no standard benchmarks for comparing with existing methods, which seriously hinders further developments in this research area. In this work, we present OpenHoldem, an integrated toolkit for large-scale imperfect-information game research using NLTH. OpenHoldem makes three main contributions to this research direction: 1) a standardized evaluation protocol for thoroughly evaluating different NLTH AIs, 2) three publicly available strong baselines for NLTH AI, and 3) an online testing platform with easy-to-use APIs for public NLTH AI evaluation. We have released OpenHoldem at http://holdem.ia.ac.cn/, hoping it facilitates further studies on the unsolved theoretical and computational issues in this area and cultivate crucial research problems like opponent modeling, large-scale equilibrium-finding, and human-computer interactive learning.


Scalable and interpretable rule-based link prediction for large heterogeneous knowledge graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neural embedding-based machine learning models have shown promise for predicting novel links in biomedical knowledge graphs. Unfortunately, their practical utility is diminished by their lack of interpretability. Recently, the fully interpretable, rule-based algorithm AnyBURL yielded highly competitive results on many general-purpose link prediction benchmarks. However, its applicability to large-scale prediction tasks on complex biomedical knowledge bases is limited by long inference times and difficulties with aggregating predictions made by multiple rules. We improve upon AnyBURL by introducing the SAFRAN rule application framework which aggregates rules through a scalable clustering algorithm. SAFRAN yields new state-of-the-art results for fully interpretable link prediction on the established general-purpose benchmark FB15K-237 and the large-scale biomedical benchmark OpenBioLink. Furthermore, it exceeds the results of multiple established embedding-based algorithms on FB15K-237 and narrows the gap between rule-based and embedding-based algorithms on OpenBioLink. We also show that SAFRAN increases inference speeds by up to two orders of magnitude.


Explainable AI for Interpretable Credit Scoring

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the ever-growing achievements in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the recent boosted enthusiasm in Financial Technology (FinTech), applications such as credit scoring have gained substantial academic interest. Credit scoring helps financial experts make better decisions regarding whether or not to accept a loan application, such that loans with a high probability of default are not accepted. Apart from the noisy and highly imbalanced data challenges faced by such credit scoring models, recent regulations such as the right to explanation' introduced by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) have added the need for model interpretability to ensure that algorithmic decisions are understandable and coherent. An interesting concept that has been recently introduced is eXplainable AI (XAI), which focuses on making black-box models more interpretable. In this work, we present a credit scoring model that is both accurate and interpretable. For classification, state-of-the-art performance on the Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC) and Lending Club (LC) Datasets is achieved using the Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model. The model is then further enhanced with a 360-degree explanation framework, which provides different explanations (i.e. Evaluation through the use of functionallygrounded, application-grounded and human-grounded analysis show that the explanations provided are simple, consistent as well as satisfy the six predetermined hypotheses testing for correctness, effectiveness, easy understanding, detail sufficiency and trustworthiness. Credit scoring models are decision models that help lenders decide whether or not to accept a loan application based on the model's expectation of the applicant being capable or not of repaying the financial obligations [1]. Such models are beneficial since they reduce the time needed for the loan approval process, allow loan officers to concentrate on only a percentage of the applications, lead to cost savings, reduce human subjectivity and decrease default risk [2]. There has been a lot of research on this problem, with various Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques proposed. Such techniques might be exceptional in predictive power but are also known as black-box methods since they provide no explanations behind their decisions, making humans unable to interpret them [3]. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that any financial expert is ready to trust the predictions of a model without any sort of justification [4]. With regards to credit scoring, lenders will need to understand the model's predictions to ensure that decisions are made for the correct reasons.


A Look at AI in CFD Trading

#artificialintelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a concept which has pervaded every area of business, offering new opportunities which were hitherto impossible. This is especially the case within financial trading in areas such as CFDs where speed and reduction of errors are absolutely vital. Of course, you can't merely slot AI in and expect it to do all the work. You'll still need to have a fundamental working knowledge of CFDs yourself. You can find detailed guides on CFD trading which will provide an excellent foundation for learning.


Getting smart about the future of AI

#artificialintelligence

Fast-forward to the 1980s, when digital electronics started having a deep impact on society--the dawning Digital Revolution. Building on that era is what's called the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Like its predecessors, it is centered on technological advancements--this time it's artificial intelligence (AI), autonomous machines, and the internet of things--but now the focus is on how technology will affect society and humanity's ability to communicate and remain connected. "In the first Industrial Revolution, we replaced brawn with steam. In the second, we replaced steam with electricity, and in the third, we introduced computers," says Guido Jouret, chief digital officer for Swiss industrial corporation ABB.


Fraud through the eyes of a machine - KDnuggets

#artificialintelligence

There are many approaches to determining whether a particular transaction is fraudulent. From rule-based systems to machine learning models - each method tends to work best under certain conditions. Successful anti-fraud systems should reap the benefits of all the approaches and utilize them where they fit the problem best. The notion of networks and connection analysis in the world of anti-fraud systems is paramount since it helps uncover hidden characteristics of transactions that are not retrievable any other way. In this blog post, we will try to shed some light on the way networks are created and then used to detect fraudulent transactions.


xFraud: Explainable Fraud Transaction Detection on Heterogeneous Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

At online retail platforms, it is crucial to actively detect risks of fraudulent transactions to improve our customer experience, minimize loss, and prevent unauthorized chargebacks. Traditional rule-based methods and simple feature-based models are either inefficient or brittle and uninterpretable. The graph structure that exists among the heterogeneous typed entities of the transaction logs is informative and difficult to fake. To utilize the heterogeneous graph relationships and enrich the explainability, we present xFraud, an explainable Fraud transaction prediction system. xFraud is composed of a predictor which learns expressive representations for malicious transaction detection from the heterogeneous transaction graph via a self-attentive heterogeneous graph neural network, and an explainer that generates meaningful and human understandable explanations from graphs to facilitate further process in business unit. In our experiments with xFraud on two real transaction networks with up to ten millions transactions, we are able to achieve an area under a curve (AUC) score that outperforms baseline models and graph embedding methods. In addition, we show how the explainer could benefit the understanding towards model predictions and enhance model trustworthiness for real-world fraud transaction cases.