A rule-based system may be viewed as consisting of three basic components: a set of rules [rule base], a data base [fact base], and an interpreter for the rules. In the simplest design, a rule … can be viewed as a simple conditional statement, and the invocation of rules as a sequence of actions chained by modus ponens.
– from The Origin of Rule-Based Systems in AI. Randall Davis and Jonathan J. King, reprinted as Ch. 2 of Rule Based Expert Systems: The Mycin Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project (The Addison-Wesley Series in Artificial Intelligence). Bruce G. Buchanan and Edward H. Shortliffe (Eds.). Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 1984.
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) is one of the key areas in artificial intelligence (AI) field. It is intended to represent the world knowledge in formal languages (e.g., Prolog, SPARQL) and then enhance the expert systems to perform querying and inference tasks. Currently, constructing large scale knowledge bases (KBs) with high quality is prohibited by the fact that the construction process requires many qualified knowledge engineers who not only understand the domain-specific knowledge but also have sufficient skills in knowledge representation. Unfortunately, qualified knowledge engineers are in short supply. Therefore, it would be very useful to build a tool that allows the user to construct and query the KB simply via text. Although there is a number of systems developed for knowledge extraction and question answering, they mainly fail in that these system don't achieve high enough accuracy whereas KRR is highly sensitive to erroneous data. In this thesis proposal, I will present Knowledge Authoring Logic Machine (KALM), a rule-based system which allows the user to author knowledge and query the KB in text. The experimental results show that KALM achieved superior accuracy in knowledge authoring and question answering as compared to the state-of-the-art systems.
Research has provided evidence that associative classification produces more accurate results compared to other classification models. The Classification Based on Association (CBA) is one of the famous Associative Classification algorithms that generates accurate classifiers. However, current association classification algorithms reside external to databases, which reduces the flexibility of enterprise analytics systems. This paper implements the CBA in Oracle database using two variant models: hardcoding the CBA in Oracle Data Mining (ODM) package and Integrating Oracle Apriori model with the Oracle Decision tree model. We compared the proposed model performance with Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine, Random Forests, and Decision Tree over 18 datasets from UCI. Results showed that our models outperformed the original CBA model with 1 percent and is competitive to chosen classification models over benchmark datasets.
Businesses across verticals are moving from digitisation to cognification of everything. Having said that, banks and financial institutions have recognised the potentials of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to redefine their processes, products and services. With customer experience becoming vital to ensure good business, banks have been adopting AI solutions to further enhance their services what with virtual assistants and chatbots handling different customer queries. The banking industry is using AI to reimagine products, processes, strategies and the overall customer experience. Cutting edge AI research and development is transforming the sector through an automated, integrated, collaborated approach to cyber defence and helping facilitate better information sharing between security components within and across organizations.
DINARD, FRANCE - Foreign ministers of Group of Seven nations on Saturday pushed North Korea to continue denuclearization negotiations with the United States while vowing to maintain pressure on Pyongyang to encourage it to give up its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs. In a communique issued after a two-day meeting in Dinard, western France, the ministers also expressed serious concern about the situation in the East and South China seas -- a veiled criticism of China's militarization of outposts in disputed areas of the South China Sea and its attempts to undermine Japan's control of the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea. The Senkakus are administered by Japan, but claimed by China and Taiwa, which call them the Diaoyu and Tiaoyutai, respectively. During the meeting, some G7 members touched on China's expanding global ambitions through its signature Belt and Road Initiative infrastructure project, a Japanese official said. But the communique makes no reference to the initiative in an apparent effort to demonstrate unity among the group.
Autonomous driving decision-making is a great challenge due to the complexity and uncertainty of the traffic environment. Combined with the rule-based constraints, a Deep Q-Network (DQN) based method is applied for autonomous driving lane change decision-making task in this study. Through the combination of high-level lateral decision-making and low-level rule-based trajectory modification, a safe and efficient lane change behavior can be achieved. With the setting of our state representation and reward function, the trained agent is able to take appropriate actions in a real-world-like simulator. The generated policy is evaluated on the simulator for 10 times, and the results demonstrate that the proposed rule-based DQN method outperforms the rule-based approach and the DQN method.
On a less-trafficked floor of the Whitney Museum, curators have scoured the museum's permanent collection to display art that uses "instructions, sets of rules, and code" to investigate a world "increasingly driven by automated systems." In the nineties, the game designer Frank Lantz produced such work. "I would make some marks on a page, and then I would just connect the endpoints of all the lines to the nearest unconnected endpoint, and then I would add another rule," he said. His method had a whiff of misanthropy. He wanted to render himself obsolete and let something else take over.
In this paper we investigate two variants of association rules for preference data, Label Ranking Association Rules and Pairwise Association Rules. Label Ranking Association Rules (LRAR) are the equivalent of Class Association Rules (CAR) for the Label Ranking task. In CAR, the consequent is a single class, to which the example is expected to belong to. In LRAR, the consequent is a ranking of the labels. The generation of LRAR requires special support and confidence measures to assess the similarity of rankings. In this work, we carry out a sensitivity analysis of these similarity-based measures. We want to understand which datasets benefit more from such measures and which parameters have more influence in the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, we propose an alternative type of rules, the Pairwise Association Rules (PAR), which are defined as association rules with a set of pairwise preferences in the consequent. While PAR can be used both as descriptive and predictive models, they are essentially descriptive models. Experimental results show the potential of both approaches.
What exactly is artificial intelligence? In much the same way that you'd be a bit stumped if someone demanded that you provide a hard and fast definition of say, philosophy, there isn't a satisfactorily rigorous answer to this question. As the Stanford Encyclopaedia explains, AI's definition falls under the category of "remarkably difficult, maybe even eternally unanswerable, questions, especially if the target is a consensus definition". But that hasn't stopped startups from jumping on the buzzword bandwagon. To get around this problem, most AI definitions settle for a muddled approach.
His demand for a ban triggered a legal and moral quagmire, as the Pentagon faced the prospect of throwing out service members who had willingly come forward as transgender after being promised they would be protected and allowed to serve. And as legal battles blocked the ban from taking effect, the Obama-era policy continued and transgender individuals were allowed to begin enlisting in the military a little more than a year ago.
WASHINGTON – The Defense Department has approved a new policy that will largely bar most transgender troops and military recruits from transitioning to another sex, and require most individuals to serve in their birth gender. The new policy comes after a lengthy and complicated legal battle, and it falls short of the all-out transgender ban that was initially ordered by President Donald Trump. But it will likely force the military to eventually discharge transgender individuals who need hormone treatments or surgery and can't or won't serve in their birth gender. The order says the military services must implement the new policy in 30 days, giving some individuals a short window of time to qualify for gender transition if needed. And it allows service secretaries to waive the policy on a case-by-case basis.