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Rule-Based Reasoning


Is AI there yet?

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It's a cold winter day in Detroit, but the sun is shining bright. Robert Williams decided to spend some quality time rolling on his house's front loan with his two daughters. Suddenly, police officers appeared from nowhere and brought to an abrupt halt a perfect family day. Robert was ripped from the arms of his crying daughters without an explanation, and cold handcuffs now gripped his hands. The police took him away in no time! His family were left shaken in disbelief at the scene which had unfolded in front of their eyes. What followed for Robert were 30 long hours in police custody.


How to explain Artificial Intelligence to your parents

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Recently my mom asked me the following question: I reflected on this question and decided to write an article that explains Artificial Intelligence in simple terms. The goal is that any non-technical person can understand the high-level concepts around Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. It isn't an easy task but let's go for it! To start this explanation, we will first define some concepts and then give two real-life analogies to keep things simple. We have to define concepts first so that we are all on the same ground about what are all these concepts and buzz words.


Amazon launches Lookout for Metrics, an AWS service to monitor business performance

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Amazon today announced the general availability of Lookout for Metrics, a fully managed service that uses machine learning to monitor key factors impacting the health of enterprises. Launched at re:Invent 2020 last December in preview, Lookout for Metrics can now be accessed by most Amazon Web Services (AWS) customers via the AWS console and through supporting partners. Organizations analyze metrics or key performance indicators to help their businesses run effectively and efficiently. Traditionally, business intelligence tools are used to manage this data across disparate sources, but identifying these anomalies is challenging. Traditional rule-based methods look for data that falls outside of numerical ranges.


Council Post: Operationalizing AI: MLOps, DataOps And AIOps

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As organizations increasingly embark on their digital transformation journey, IT is turning into a profit center, rather than a cost center. CIOs (chief information officers) are more than often referred to as chief innovation officers. New roles like chief data officer and chief analytics officer are rising to prominence. Organizations on their digital transformation journey are facing increasing pressures due to the pandemic, remote workspaces and increasingly distributed applications. IT's ability to rapidly adapt to changing market needs is paramount to a successful digital transformation journey.


When Hackers Were Heroes

Communications of the ACM

Forty years ago, the word "hacker" was little known. Its march from obscurity to newspaper headlines owes a great deal to tech journalist Steven Levy, who in 1984 defied the advice of his publisher to call his first book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution.11 Hackers were a subculture of computer enthusiasts for whom programming was a vocation and playing around with computers constituted a lifestyle. Hackers was published only three years after Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a New Machine, explored in my last column (January 2021, p. 32–37), but a lot had changed during the interval. Kidder's assumed readers had never seen a minicomputer, still less designed one. By 1984, in contrast, the computer geek was a prominent part of popular culture. Unlike Kidder, Levy had to make people reconsider what they thought they already knew. Computers were suddenly everywhere, but they remained unfamiliar enough to inspire a host of popular books to ponder the personal and social transformations triggered by the microchip. The short-lived home computer boom had brought computer programming into the living rooms and basements of millions of middle-class Americans, sparking warnings about the perils of computer addiction. A satirical guide, published the same year, warned of "micromania."15 The year before, the film Wargames suggested computer-obsessed youth might accidentally trigger nuclear war.


Artificial intelligence for fraud detection is bound to save billions

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Fraud mitigation is one of the most sought-after artificial intelligence (AI) services because it can provide an immediate return on investment. Already, many companies are experiencing lucrative profits thanks to AI and machine learning (ML) systems that detect and prevent fraud in real-time. According to a new report, Highmark Inc.'s Financial Investigations and Provider Review (FIPR) department generated $260 million in savings that would have otherwise been lost to fraud, waste, and abuse in 2019. In the last five years, the company saved $850 million. "We know the overwhelming majority of providers do the right thing. But we also know year after year millions of health care dollars are lost to fraud, waste and abuse," said Melissa Anderson, executive vice president and chief audit and compliance officer, Highmark Health.


Mining GIS Data to Predict Urban Sprawl

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper addresses the interesting problem of processing and analyzing data in geographic information systems (GIS) to achieve a clear perspective on urban sprawl. The term urban sprawl refers to overgrowth and expansion of low-density areas with issues such as car dependency and segregation between residential versus commercial use. Sprawl has impacts on the environment and public health. In our work, spatiotemporal features related to real GIS data on urban sprawl such as population growth and demographics are mined to discover knowledge for decision support. We adapt data mining algorithms, Apriori for association rule mining and J4.8 for decision tree classification to geospatial analysis, deploying the ArcGIS tool for mapping. Knowledge discovered by mining this spatiotemporal data is used to implement a prototype spatial decision support system (SDSS). This SDSS predicts whether urban sprawl is likely to occur. Further, it estimates the values of pertinent variables to understand how the variables impact each other. The SDSS can help decision-makers identify problems and create solutions for avoiding future sprawl occurrence and conducting urban planning where sprawl already occurs, thus aiding sustainable development. This work falls in the broad realm of geospatial intelligence and sets the stage for designing a large scale SDSS to process big data in complex environments, which constitutes part of our future work.


The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security

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Current Technologies put the organization's cybersecurity at risk. Even with the new advancements in the defence strategies, security professional fails at some point. Combining the strength of AI with the skills of security professionals from vulnerability checks to defence becomes very effective. Organizations get instant insights, in turn, get reduced response time. Artificial Intelligence for Cyber Security is the new wave in Security.


Opinion/Middendorf: Military risks and potential of artificial intelligence

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Former Secretary of the Navy J. William Middendorf II, of Little Compton, lays out the threat posed by the Chinese Communist Party in his recent book, "The Great Nightfall." With the emerging priority of artificial intelligence (AI), China is shifting away from a strategy of neutralizing or destroying an enemy's conventional military assets -- its planes, ships and army units. AI strategy is now evolving into dominating what are termed adversaries' "systems-of-systems" -- the combinations of all their intelligence and conventional military assets. What China would attempt first is to disable all of its adversaries' information networks that bind their military systems and assets. It would destroy individual elements of these now-disaggregated forces, probably with missiles and naval strikes.


Radar Camera Fusion via Representation Learning in Autonomous Driving

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Radars and cameras are mature, cost-effective, and robust sensors and have been widely used in the perception stack of mass-produced autonomous driving systems. Due to their complementary properties, outputs from radar detection (radar pins) and camera perception (2D bounding boxes) are usually fused to generate the best perception results. The key to successful radar-camera fusion is accurate data association. The challenges in radar-camera association can be attributed to the complexity of driving scenes, the noisy and sparse nature of radar measurements, and the depth ambiguity from 2D bounding boxes. Traditional rule-based association methods are susceptible to performance degradation in challenging scenarios and failure in corner cases. In this study, we propose to address rad-cam association via deep representation learning, to explore feature-level interaction and global reasoning. Concretely, we design a loss sampling mechanism and an innovative ordinal loss to overcome the difficulty of imperfect labeling and to enforce critical human reasoning. Despite being trained with noisy labels generated by a rule-based algorithm, our proposed method achieves a performance of 92.2% F1 score, which is 11.6% higher than the rule-based teacher. Moreover, this data-driven method also lends itself to continuous improvement via corner case mining.