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Plan Recognition


Action-Model Based Multi-agent Plan Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Multi-Agent Plan Recognition (MAPR) aims to recognize dynamic team structures and team behaviors from the observed team traces (activity sequences) of a set of intelligent agents. Previous MAPR approaches required a library of team activity sequences (team plans) be given as input. However, collecting a library of team plans to ensure adequate coverage is often difficult and costly. In this paper, we relax this constraint, so that team plans are not required to be provided beforehand. We assume instead that a set of action models are available.


A Transfer Learning Method for Goal Recognition Exploiting Cross-Domain Spatial Features

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The ability to infer the intentions of others, predict their goals, and deduce their plans are critical features for intelligent agents. For a long time, several approaches investigated the use of symbolic representations and inferences with limited success, principally because it is difficult to capture the cognitive knowledge behind human decisions explicitly. The trend, nowadays, is increasingly focusing on learning to infer intentions directly from data, using deep learning in particular. We are now observing interesting applications of intent classification in natural language processing, visual activity recognition, and emerging approaches in other domains. This paper discusses a novel approach combining few-shot and transfer learning with cross-domain features, to learn to infer the intent of an agent navigating in physical environments, executing arbitrary long sequences of actions to achieve their goals. Experiments in synthetic environments demonstrate improved performance in terms of learning from few samples and generalizing to unseen configurations, compared to a deep-learning baseline approach.


Partial-Order, Partially-Seen Observations of Fluents or Actions for Plan Recognition as Planning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This work aims to make plan recognition as planning more ready for real-world scenarios by adapting previous compilations to work with partial-order, half-seen observations of both fluents and actions. We first redefine what observations can be and what it means to satisfy each kind. We then provide a compilation from plan recognition problem to classical planning problem, similar to original work by Ram ırez and Geffner, but accommodating these more complex observation types. This compilation can be adapted towards other planning-based plan recognition techniques. Lastly we evaluate this method against an "ignore complexity" strategy that uses the original method by Ram ırez and Geffner. Our experimental results suggest that, while slower, our method is equally or more accurate than baseline methods; our technique sometimes significantly reduces the size of the solution to the plan recognition problem, i.e, the size of the optimal goal set. We discuss these findings in the context of plan recognition problem difficulty and present an avenue for future work.


Active Goal Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To coordinate with other systems, agents must be able to determine what the systems are currently doing and predict what they will be doing in the future---plan and goal recognition. There are many methods for plan and goal recognition, but they assume a passive observer that continually monitors the target system. Real-world domains, where information gathering has a cost (e.g., moving a camera or a robot, or time taken away from another task), will often require a more active observer. We propose to combine goal recognition with other observer tasks in order to obtain \emph{active goal recognition} (AGR). We discuss this problem and provide a model and preliminary experimental results for one form of this composite problem. As expected, the results show that optimal behavior in AGR problems balance information gathering with other actions (e.g., task completion) such as to achieve all tasks jointly and efficiently. We hope that our formulation opens the door for extensive further research on this interesting and realistic problem.


Responsive Planning and Recognition for Closed-Loop Interaction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Many intelligent systems currently interact with others using at least one of fixed communication inputs or preset responses, resulting in rigid interaction experiences and extensive efforts developing a variety of scenarios for the system. Fixed inputs limit the natural behavior of the user in order to effectively communicate, and preset responses prevent the system from adapting to the current situation unless it was specifically implemented. Closed-loop interaction instead focuses on dynamic responses that account for what the user is currently doing based on interpretations of their perceived activity. Agents employing closed-loop interaction can also monitor their interactions to ensure that the user responds as expected. We introduce a closed-loop interactive agent framework that integrates planning and recognition to predict what the user is trying to accomplish and autonomously decide on actions to take in response to these predictions. Based on a recent demonstration of such an assistive interactive agent in a turn-based simulated game, we also discuss new research challenges that are not present in the areas of artificial intelligence planning or recognition alone.


Balancing Goal Obfuscation and Goal Legibility in Settings with Cooperative and Adversarial Observers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In order to be useful in the real world, AI agents need to plan and act in the presence of others, who may include adversarial and cooperative entities. In this paper, we consider the problem where an autonomous agent needs to act in a manner that clarifies its objectives to cooperative entities while preventing adversarial entities from inferring those objectives. We show that this problem is solvable when cooperative entities and adversarial entities use different types of sensors and/or prior knowledge. We develop two new solution approaches for computing such plans. One approach provides an optimal solution to the problem by using an IP solver to provide maximum obfuscation for adversarial entities while providing maximum legibility for cooperative entities in the environment, whereas the other approach provides a satisficing solution using heuristic-guided forward search to achieve preset levels of obfuscation and legibility for adversarial and cooperative entities respectively. We show the feasibility and utility of our algorithms through extensive empirical evaluation on problems derived from planning benchmarks.


Goal Recognition Design in Deterministic Environments

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Goal recognition design (GRD) facilitates understanding the goals of acting agents through the analysis and redesign of goal recognition models, thus offering a solution for assessing and minimizing the maximal progress of any agent in the model before goal recognition is guaranteed. In a nutshell, given a model of a domain and a set of possible goals, a solution to a GRD problem determines (1) the extent to which actions performed by an agent within the model reveal the agent’s objective; and (2) how best to modify the model so that the objective of an agent can be detected as early as possible. This approach is relevant to any domain in which rapid goal recognition is essential and the model design can be controlled. Applications include intrusion detection, assisted cognition, computer games, and human-robot collaboration. A GRD problem has two components: the analyzed goal recognition setting, and a design model specifying the possible ways the environment in which agents act can be modified so as to facilitate recognition. This work formulates a general framework for GRD in deterministic and partially observable environments, and offers a toolbox of solutions for evaluating and optimizing model quality for various settings. For the purpose of evaluation we suggest the worst case distinctiveness (WCD) measure, which represents the maximal cost of a path an agent may follow before its goal can be inferred by a goal recognition system. We offer novel compilations to classical planning for calculating WCD in settings where agents are bounded-suboptimal. We then suggest methods for minimizing WCD by searching for an optimal redesign strategy within the space of possible modifications, and using pruning to increase efficiency. We support our approach with an empirical evaluation that measures WCD in a variety of GRD settings and tests the efficiency of our compilation-based methods for computing it. We also examine the effectiveness of reducing WCD via redesign and the performance gain brought about by our proposed pruning strategy.


Landmark-Based Approaches for Goal Recognition as Planning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The task of recognizing goals and plans from missing and full observations can be done efficiently by using automated planning techniques. In many applications, it is important to recognize goals and plans not only accurately, but also quickly. To address this challenge, we develop novel goal recognition approaches based on planning techniques that rely on planning landmarks. In automated planning, landmarks are properties (or actions) that cannot be avoided to achieve a goal. We show the applicability of a number of planning techniques with an emphasis on landmarks for goal and plan recognition tasks in two settings: (1) we use the concept of landmarks to develop goal recognition heuristics; and (2) we develop a landmark-based filtering method to refine existing planning-based goal and plan recognition approaches. These recognition approaches are empirically evaluated in experiments over several classical planning domains. We show that our goal recognition approaches yield not only accuracy comparable to (and often higher than) other state-of-the-art techniques, but also substantially faster recognition time over such techniques.


Cost-Based Goal Recognition in Navigational Domains

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Goal recognition is the problem of determining an agent's intent by observing her behaviour. Contemporary solutions for general task-planning relate the probability of a goal to the cost of reaching it. We adapt this approach to goal recognition in the strict context of path-planning. We show (1) that a simpler formula provides an identical result to current state-of-the-art in less than half the time under all but one set of conditions. Further, we prove (2) that the probability distribution based on this technique is independent of an agent's past behaviour and present a revised formula that achieves goal recognition by reference to the agent's starting point and current location only. Building on this, we demonstrate (3) that a Radius of Maximum Probability (i.e., the distance from a goal within which that goal is guaranteed to be the most probable) can be calculated from relative cost-distances between the candidate goals and a start location, without needing to calculate any actual probabilities. In this extended version of earlier work, we generalise our framework to the continuous domain and discuss our results, including the conditions under which our findings can be generalised back to goal recognition in general task-planning.


Back to the Future for Dialogue Research: A Position Paper

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This short position paper is intended to provide a critique of current approaches to dialogue, as well as a roadmap for collaborative dialogue research. It is unapologetically opinionated, but informed by 40 years of dialogue re-search. No attempt is made to be comprehensive. The paper will discuss current research into building so-called "chatbots", slot-filling dialogue systems, and plan-based dialogue systems. For further discussion of some of these issues, please see (Allen et al., in press).