The main effort of the research in knowledge representation is providing theories and systems for expressing structured knowledge and for accessing and reasoning with it in a principled way. Description Logics are considered the most important knowledge representation formalism unifying and giving a logical basis to the well known traditions of Frame-based systems, Semantic Networks and KL-ONE-like languages, Object-Oriented representations, Semantic data models, and Type systems.
Unification in Description Logics (DLs) has been proposed as an inference service that can, for example, be used to detect redundancies in ontologies. The inexpressive Description Logic EL is of particular interest in this context since, on the one hand, several large biomedical ontologies are defined using EL. On the other hand, unification in EL has recently been shown to be NP-complete, and thus of significantly lower complexity than unification in other DLs of similarly restricted expressive power. However, the unification algorithms for EL developed so far cannot deal with general concept inclusion axioms (GCIs). This paper makes a considerable step towards addressing this problem, but the GCIs our new unification algorithm can deal with still need to satisfy a certain cycle restriction.
In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As representation formalism we use Description Logics (DLs), thus assuming that the source and target KBs are given as a DL TBox ABox, while the mappings have the form of DL TBox assertions. We study the problem of translating the knowledge in the source KB according to these mappings. We define a general framework of KB exchange, and address the problems of representing implicit source information in the target, and of computing different kinds of solutions, i.e., target KBs with specified properties, given a source KB and a mapping.
The EL family of description logics (DLs) has been designed to provide a restricted syntax for commonly used DL constructors with the goal to guarantee polynomial complexity of reasoning. Yet, polynomial complexity does not always mean that the underlying reasoning procedure is efficient inpractice. In this paper we consider a simple DL ELO from the EL family that admits nominals, and argue that existing polynomial reasoning procedures for ELO can be impractical for many realistic ontologies. To solve the problem, we describe an optimization strategy in which the inference rules required for reasoning with nominals are avoided as much as possible. The optimized procedure is evaluated within the reasoner ELK and demonstrated to perform well in practice.
Fuzzy description logics (DLs) have been investigated for over two decades, due to their capacity to formalize and reason with imprecise concepts. Very recently, it has been shown that for several fuzzy DLs, reasoning becomes undecidable. Although the proofs of these results differ in the details of each specific logic considered, they are all based on the same basic idea. In this paper, we formalize this idea and provide sufficient conditions for proving undecidability of a fuzzy DL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by strengthening all previously-known undecidability results and providing new ones. In particular, we show that undecidability may arise even if only crisp axioms are considered.
While query answering in the presence of description logic (DL) ontologies is a well-studied problem, questions of static analysis such as query containment and query optimization have received less attention. In this paper, we study a rather general version of query containment that, unlike the classical version, cannot be reduced to query answering. First, we allow a restriction to be placed on the vocabulary used in the instance data, which can result in shorter equivalent queries; and second, we allow each query its own ontology rather than assuming a single ontology for both queries, which is crucial in applications to versioning and modularity. We also study global minimization of queries in the presence of DL ontologies, which is more subtle than for classical databases as minimal queries need not be isomorphic.
Datalog /- is a conceptually very simple formalism that extends plain Datalog with features such as existential quantifiers, equalities, and the falsum in rule heads and, at the same time, restricts the rule syntax so as to achieve decidability and, when required, tractability. Datalog /- provides a uniform framework for query answering and reasoning with incomplete data.
Nominal schemas extend description logics (DLs) with a restricted form of variables, thus integrating rule-like expressive power into standard DLs. They are also one of the most recently introduced DL features, and in spite of many works on algorithms and implementations, almost nothing is known about their computational complexity and expressivity. We close this gap by providing a comprehensive analysis of the reasoning complexities of a wide range of DLs--from EL to SROIQ--extended with nominal schemas. Both combinedand data complexities increase by one exponential in most cases, with the one previously known case of SROIQ being the main exception. Our proofs employ general modeling techniques that exploit the power of nominal schemas to succinctly represent many axioms, and which can also be applied to study DLs beyond those we consider.
In Description Logic (DL) knowledge bases (KBs) information is typically captured by crisp concepts. For many applications, querying the KB by crisp query concepts is too restrictive. A controlled way of gradually relaxing a query concept can be achieved by the use of concept similarity measures. In this paper we formalize the task of instance query answering for crisp DL KBs using concepts relaxed by concept similarity measures. We investigate computation algorithms for this task in the DL EL, their complexity and properties for the employed similarity measure regarding whether unfoldable or general TBoxes are used.
We investigate conjunctive query inseparability of description logic (DL) knowledge bases (KBs) with respect to a given signature, a fundamental problem for KB versioning, module extraction, forgetting and knowledge exchange. We study the data and combined complexity of deciding KB query inseparability for fragments of Horn-ALCHI, including the DLs underpinning OWL 2 QL and OWL 2 EL. While all of these DLs are P-complete for data complexity, the combined complexity ranges from P to EXPTIME and 2EXPTIME. We also resolve two major open problems for OWL 2 QL by showing that TBox query inseparability and the membership problem for universal UCQ-solutions in knowledge exchange are both EXPTIME-complete for combined complexity.