Text Classification


Towards Holistic Scene Understanding: Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

In many machine learning domains (such as scene understanding), several related sub-tasks (such as scene categorization, depth estimation, object detection) operate on the same raw data and provide correlated outputs. Each of these tasks is often notoriously hard, and state-of-the-art classifiers already exist for many sub-tasks. It is desirable to have an algorithm that can capture such correlation without requiring to make any changes to the inner workings of any classifier. We propose Feedback Enabled Cascaded Classification Models (FE-CCM), that maximizes the joint likelihood of the sub-tasks, while requiring only a'black-box' interface to the original classifier for each sub-task. We use a two-layer cascade of classifiers, which are repeated instantiations of the original ones, with the output of the first layer fed into the second layer as input.


Cascaded Classification Models: Combining Models for Holistic Scene Understanding

Neural Information Processing Systems

One of the original goals of computer vision was to fully understand a natural scene. This requires solving several problems simultaneously, including object detection, labeling of meaningful regions, and 3d reconstruction. While great progress has been made in tackling each of these problems in isolation, only recently have researchers again been considering the difficult task of assembling various methods to the mutual benefit of all. We consider learning a set of such classification models in such a way that they both solve their own problem and help each other. We develop a framework known as Cascaded Classification Models (CCM), where repeated instantiations of these classifiers are coupled by their input/output variables in a cascade that improves performance at each level.


A Multiplicative Model for Learning Distributed Text-Based Attribute Representations

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper we propose a general framework for learning distributed representations of attributes: characteristics of text whose representations can be jointly learned with word embeddings. Attributes can correspond to a wide variety of concepts, such as document indicators (to learn sentence vectors), language indicators (to learn distributed language representations), meta-data and side information (such as the age, gender and industry of a blogger) or representations of authors. We describe a third-order model where word context and attribute vectors interact multiplicatively to predict the next word in a sequence. This leads to the notion of conditional word similarity: how meanings of words change when conditioned on different attributes. We perform several experimental tasks including sentiment classification, cross-lingual document classification, and blog authorship attribution.


A Novel Two-Step Method for Cross Language Representation Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Cross language text classification is an important learning task in natural language processing. A critical challenge of cross language learning lies in that words of different languages are in disjoint feature spaces. In this paper, we propose a two-step representation learning method to bridge the feature spaces of different languages by exploiting a set of parallel bilingual documents. Specifically, we first formulate a matrix completion problem to produce a complete parallel document-term matrix for all documents in two languages, and then induce a cross-lingual document representation by applying latent semantic indexing on the obtained matrix. We use a projected gradient descent algorithm to solve the formulated matrix completion problem with convergence guarantees.


Latent Support Measure Machines for Bag-of-Words Data Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

In many classification problems, the input is represented as a set of features, e.g., the bag-of-words (BoW) representation of documents. Support vector machines (SVMs) are widely used tools for such classification problems. The performance of the SVMs is generally determined by whether kernel values between data points can be defined properly. However, SVMs for BoW representations have a major weakness in that the co-occurrence of different but semantically similar words cannot be reflected in the kernel calculation. To overcome the weakness, we propose a kernel-based discriminative classifier for BoW data, which we call the latent support measure machine (latent SMM).


Supervised Word Mover's Distance

Neural Information Processing Systems

Accurately measuring the similarity between text documents lies at the core of many real world applications of machine learning. These include web-search ranking, document recommendation, multi-lingual document matching, and article categorization. Recently, a new document metric, the word mover's distance (WMD), has been proposed with unprecedented results on kNN-based document classification. The WMD elevates high quality word embeddings to document metrics by formulating the distance between two documents as an optimal transport problem between the embedded words. However, the document distances are entirely unsupervised and lack a mechanism to incorporate supervision when available.


AttentionXML: Label Tree-based Attention-Aware Deep Model for High-Performance Extreme Multi-Label Text Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

Extreme multi-label text classification (XMTC) is an important problem in the era of {\it big data}, for tagging a given text with the most relevant multiple labels from an extremely large-scale label set. XMTC can be found in many applications, such as item categorization, web page tagging, and news annotation. Traditionally most methods used bag-of-words (BOW) as inputs, ignoring word context as well as deep semantic information. Recent attempts to overcome the problems of BOW by deep learning still suffer from 1) failing to capture the important subtext for each label and 2) lack of scalability against the huge number of labels. We propose a new label tree-based deep learning model for XMTC, called AttentionXML, with two unique features: 1) a multi-label attention mechanism with raw text as input, which allows to capture the most relevant part of text to each label; and 2) a shallow and wide probabilistic label tree (PLT), which allows to handle millions of labels, especially for "tail labels".


Aggressive Sampling for Multi-class to Binary Reduction with Applications to Text Classification

Neural Information Processing Systems

We address the problem of multi-class classification in the case where the number of classes is very large. We propose a double sampling strategy on top of a multi-class to binary reduction strategy, which transforms the original multi-class problem into a binary classification problem over pairs of examples. The aim of the sampling strategy is to overcome the curse of long-tailed class distributions exhibited in majority of large-scale multi-class classification problems and to reduce the number of pairs of examples in the expanded data. We show that this strategy does not alter the consistency of the empirical risk minimization principle defined over the double sample reduction. Experiments are carried out on DMOZ and Wikipedia collections with 10,000 to 100,000 classes where we show the efficiency of the proposed approach in terms of training and prediction time, memory consumption, and predictive performance with respect to state-of-the-art approaches.


Privacy-Preserving Classification of Personal Text Messages with Secure Multi-Party Computation

Neural Information Processing Systems

Classification of personal text messages has many useful applications in surveillance, e-commerce, and mental health care, to name a few. Giving applications access to personal texts can easily lead to (un)intentional privacy violations. We propose the first privacy-preserving solution for text classification that is provably secure. Our method, which is based on Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC), encompasses both feature extraction from texts, and subsequent classification with logistic regression and tree ensembles. We prove that when using our secure text classification method, the application does not learn anything about the text, and the author of the text does not learn anything about the text classification model used by the application beyond what is given by the classification result itself.


Semi-supervised Convolutional Neural Networks for Text Categorization via Region Embedding

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper presents a new semi-supervised framework with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for text categorization. Unlike the previous approaches that rely on word embeddings, our method learns embeddings of small text regions from unlabeled data for integration into a supervised CNN. The proposed scheme for embedding learning is based on the idea of two-view semi-supervised learning, which is intended to be useful for the task of interest even though the training is done on unlabeled data. Our models achieve better results than previous approaches on sentiment classification and topic classification tasks. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.