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Text Classification: Overviews


Natural Language Processing in-and-for Design Research

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We review the scholarly contributions that utilise Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods to support the design process. Using a heuristic approach, we collected 223 articles published in 32 journals and within the period 1991-present. We present state-of-the-art NLP in-and-for design research by reviewing these articles according to the type of natural language text sources: internal reports, design concepts, discourse transcripts, technical publications, consumer opinions, and others. Upon summarizing and identifying the gaps in these contributions, we utilise an existing design innovation framework to identify the applications that are currently being supported by NLP. We then propose a few methodological and theoretical directions for future NLP in-and-for design research.


CLLD: Contrastive Learning with Label Distance for Text Classificatioin

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Existed pre-trained models have achieved state-of-the-art performance on various text classification tasks. These models have proven to be useful in learning universal language representations. However, the semantic discrepancy between similar texts cannot be effectively distinguished by advanced pre-trained models, which have a great influence on the performance of hard-to-distinguish classes. To address this problem, we propose a novel Contrastive Learning with Label Distance (CLLD) in this work. Inspired by recent advances in contrastive learning, we specifically design a classification method with label distance for learning contrastive classes. CLLD ensures the flexibility within the subtle differences that lead to different label assignments, and generates the distinct representations for each class having similarity simultaneously. Extensive experiments on public benchmarks and internal datasets demonstrate that our method improves the performance of pre-trained models on classification tasks. Importantly, our experiments suggest that the learned label distance relieve the adversarial nature of interclasses.


A Survey on Data-driven Software Vulnerability Assessment and Prioritization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Software Vulnerabilities (SVs) are increasing in complexity and scale, posing great security risks to many software systems. Given the limited resources in practice, SV assessment and prioritization help practitioners devise optimal SV mitigation plans based on various SV characteristics. The surge in SV data sources and data-driven techniques such as Machine Learning and Deep Learning have taken SV assessment and prioritization to the next level. Our survey provides a taxonomy of the past research efforts and highlights the best practices for data-driven SV assessment and prioritization. We also discuss the current limitations and propose potential solutions to address such issues.


A Survey on Data Augmentation for Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing the generalization capabilities of a model, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data over regularizing the objective to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation (C1) and a taxonomy for existing works (C2), this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to achieve a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners (C3). Derived from the taxonomy, we divided more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and provide state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising (C4). Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are given (C5).


Neural Natural Language Processing for Unstructured Data in Electronic Health Records: a Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Electronic health records (EHRs), digital collections of patient healthcare events and observations, are ubiquitous in medicine and critical to healthcare delivery, operations, and research. Despite this central role, EHRs are notoriously difficult to process automatically. Well over half of the information stored within EHRs is in the form of unstructured text (e.g. provider notes, operation reports) and remains largely untapped for secondary use. Recently, however, newer neural network and deep learning approaches to Natural Language Processing (NLP) have made considerable advances, outperforming traditional statistical and rule-based systems on a variety of tasks. In this survey paper, we summarize current neural NLP methods for EHR applications. We focus on a broad scope of tasks, namely, classification and prediction, word embeddings, extraction, generation, and other topics such as question answering, phenotyping, knowledge graphs, medical dialogue, multilinguality, interpretability, etc.


Comparing BERT against traditional machine learning text classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The BERT model has arisen as a popular state-of-the-art machine learning model in the recent years that is able to cope with multiple NLP tasks such as supervised text classification without human supervision. Its flexibility to cope with any type of corpus delivering great results has make this approach very popular not only in academia but also in the industry. Although, there are lots of different approaches that have been used throughout the years with success. In this work, we first present BERT and include a little review on classical NLP approaches. Then, we empirically test with a suite of experiments dealing different scenarios the behaviour of BERT against the traditional TF-IDF vocabulary fed to machine learning algorithms. Our purpose of this work is to add empirical evidence to support or refuse the use of BERT as a default on NLP tasks. Experiments show the superiority of BERT and its independence of features of the NLP problem such as the language of the text adding empirical evidence to use BERT as a default technique to be used in NLP problems.


Deep Learning Based Text Classification: A Comprehensive Review

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep learning based models have surpassed classical machine learning based approaches in various text classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, news categorization, question answering, and natural language inference. In this work, we provide a detailed review of more than 150 deep learning based models for text classification developed in recent years, and discuss their technical contributions, similarities, and strengths. We also provide a summary of more than 40 popular datasets widely used for text classification. Finally, we provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of different deep learning models on popular benchmarks, and discuss future research directions.


Seeing The Whole Patient: Using Multi-Label Medical Text Classification Techniques to Enhance Predictions of Medical Codes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning-based multi-label medical text classifications can be used to enhance the understanding of the human body and aid the need for patient care. We present a broad study on clinical natural language processing techniques to maximise a feature representing text when predicting medical codes on patients with multi-morbidity. We present results of multi-label medical text classification problems with 18, 50 and 155 labels. We compare several variations to embeddings, text tagging, and pre-processing. For imbalanced data we show that labels which occur infrequently, benefit the most from additional features incorporated in embeddings. We also show that high dimensional embeddings pre-trained using health-related data present a significant improvement in a multi-label setting, similarly to the way they improve performance for binary classification. High dimensional embeddings from this research are made available for public use.


How Do You #relax When You're #stressed? A Content Analysis and Infodemiology Study of Stress-Related Tweets

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Background: Stress is a contributing factor to many major health problems in the United States, such as heart disease, depression, and autoimmune diseases. Relaxation is often recommended in mental health treatment as a frontline strategy to reduce stress, thereby improving health conditions. Objective: The objective of our study was to understand how people express their feelings of stress and relaxation through Twitter messages. Methods: We first performed a qualitative content analysis of 1326 and 781 tweets containing the keywords "stress" and "relax", respectively. We then investigated the use of machine learning algorithms to automatically classify tweets as stress versus non stress and relaxation versus non relaxation. Finally, we applied these classifiers to sample datasets drawn from 4 cities with the goal of evaluating the extent of any correlation between our automatic classification of tweets and results from public stress surveys. Results: Content analysis showed that the most frequent topic of stress tweets was education, followed by work and social relationships. The most frequent topic of relaxation tweets was rest and vacation, followed by nature and water. When we applied the classifiers to the cities dataset, the proportion of stress tweets in New York and San Diego was substantially higher than that in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Conclusions: This content analysis and infodemiology study revealed that Twitter, when used in conjunction with natural language processing techniques, is a useful data source for understanding stress and stress management strategies, and can potentially supplement infrequently collected survey-based stress data.


Advances in Machine Learning for the Behavioral Sciences

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The areas of machine learning and knowledge discovery in databases have considerably matured in recent years. In this article, we briefly review recent developments as well as classical algorithms that stood the test of time. Our goal is to provide a general introduction into different tasks such as learning from tabular data, behavioral data, or textual data, with a particular focus on actual and potential applications in behavioral sciences. The supplemental appendix to the article also provides practical guidance for using the methods by pointing the reader to proven software implementations. The focus is on R, but we also cover some libraries in other programming languages as well as systems with easy-to-use graphical interfaces.