Understanding Language in Conversations "The problems addressed in discourse research aim to answer two general kinds of questions: (1) what information is contained in extended sequences of utterances that goes beyond the meaning of the individual utterances themselves? (2) how does the context in which an utterance is used affect the meaning of the individual utterances, or parts of them?"
– Barbara Grosz. Overview of Chapter 6: Discourse and Dialogue, Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology (1996).
What do you do before purchasing something that costs more than a pack of gum? Whether you want to treat yourself to new sneakers, a laptop, or an overseas tour, processing an order without checking out similar products or offers and reading reviews doesn't make much sense anymore. Thanks to comment sections on eCommerce sites, social nets, review platforms, or dedicated forums, you can learn a ton about a product or service and evaluate whether it's a good value for money. Other customers, including your potential clients, will do all the above. People's desire to engage with businesses and the overall brand perception depends heavily on public opinion.
In "How to Make a Racist AI Without Really Trying," Robyn Speer shows how to build a simple sentiment analysis system, using standard, well-known sources for word embeddings (GloVe and word2vec), and a widely used sentiment lexicon. Her program assigns "negative" sentiment to names and phrases associated with minorities, and "positive" sentiment to names and phrases associated with Europeans. Even a sentence like "Let's go get Mexican food" gets a much lower sentiment score than "Let's go get Italian food." That result isn't surprising, nor are Speer's conclusions: if you take a simplistic approach to sentiment analysis, you shouldn't be surprised when you get a program that embodies racist, discriminatory values. It's possible to minimize algorithmic racism (though possibly not eliminate it entirely), and Speer discusses several strategies for doing so.
Consumers have more ways than ever to communicate with the brands they buy -- be it through private chat or in public on social media sites such as Twitter. If a conversation conveys a negative sentiment, it can be detrimental if it's not addressed quickly. Many companies are leaning on early stage AI tools for help. Companies can use artificial intelligence in customer service to build a brand that's associated with excellent customer experience (CX). This is critically important in an era in which consumers can easily compare product prices on the web, said Gene Alvarez, a Gartner managing VP, during a September 2018 webinar in which analysts discussed ways artificial intelligence in customer service can drive business growth.
Earlier this year (May 2018) Microsoft announced ML.NET, an open source and cross-platform machine learning framework built for .NET developers. It is exciting news to be able to integrate custom machine learning with .NET/C# applications. Although ML.NET is still in preview release version 0.5.0 at the time of writing, you can test drive it to explore the potential power of the framework. There are already a number of tutorials for ML.NET available from Microsoft and third parties. However, the example data sources are mostly flat files in the format of TSV (Tab Separated Values).
The AFINN lexicon is perhaps one of the simplest and most popular lexicons that can be used extensively for sentiment analysis. The current version of the lexicon is AFINN-en-165. You can find this lexicon at the author's official GitHub repository. The author has also created a nice wrapper library on top of this in Python called afinn, which we will be using for our analysis. Let's look at some visualisations now.
Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a classical way to do a topic modelling. Topic modeling is a unsupervised learning and the goal is group different document to same "topic". Typical example is clustering a news to corresponding category including "Finance", "Travel", "Sport" etc. Before word embeddings we may use Bag-of-Words in most of the time. However, the world changed after Mikolov et al. introduce word2vec (one of the example of Word Embeddings) in 2013.
We present a neural framework for opinion summarization from online product reviews which is knowledge-lean and only requires light supervision (e.g., in the form of product domain labels and user-provided ratings). Our method combines two weakly supervised components to identify salient opinions and form extractive summaries from multiple reviews: an aspect extractor trained under a multi-task objective, and a sentiment predictor based on multiple instance learning. We introduce an opinion summarization dataset that includes a training set of product reviews from six diverse domains and human-annotated development and test sets with gold standard aspect annotations, salience labels, and opinion summaries. Automatic evaluation shows significant improvements over baselines, and a large-scale study indicates that our opinion summaries are preferred by human judges according to multiple criteria.
Sentiment analysis is perhaps one of the most popular applications of NLP, with a vast number of tutorials, courses, and applications that focus on analyzing sentiments of diverse datasets ranging from corporate surveys to movie reviews. The key aspect of sentiment analysis is to analyze a body of text for understanding the opinion expressed by it. Typically, we quantify this sentiment with a positive or negative value, called polarity. The overall sentiment is often inferred as positive, neutral or negative from the sign of the polarity score. Usually, sentiment analysis works best on text that has a subjective context than on text with only an objective context.
In this technical report, we present jLDADMM---an easy-to-use Java toolkit for conventional topic models. jLDADMM is released to provide alternatives for topic modeling on normal or short texts. It provides implementations of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic model and the one-topic-per-document Dirichlet Multinomial Mixture model (i.e. mixture of unigrams), using collapsed Gibbs sampling. In addition, jLDADMM supplies a document clustering evaluation to compare topic models. jLDADMM is open-source and available to download at: https://github.com/datquocnguyen/jLDADMM
BANGKOK – Japanese companies operating in Thailand are upbeat about the business climate thanks to recovery in the automobile sector and its spillover effects to other sectors, with a diffusion index for the second half of this year reaching the highest level in six years. The index for the direction of the business climate in the July-December period rose to 40, up four points from the first half of this year, for the sixth straight half-year improvement, according to a survey by the Japanese Chamber of Commerce, Bangkok. It was the highest positive figure since the latter half of 2012 when the index stood at 41. According to the survey, the indexes for manufacturers and nonmanufacturers in the latter half of this year came to 36 and 45, up from 32 and 41 from the first half, respectively. Business sentiment in sectors such as textiles, general machinery, transportation machinery, trading and retailers improved, while that in sectors like chemicals and construction fell.