Understanding Language in Conversations "The problems addressed in discourse research aim to answer two general kinds of questions: (1) what information is contained in extended sequences of utterances that goes beyond the meaning of the individual utterances themselves? (2) how does the context in which an utterance is used affect the meaning of the individual utterances, or parts of them?"
– Barbara Grosz. Overview of Chapter 6: Discourse and Dialogue, Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology (1996).
The Github repo for this post contains a notebook and the data needed to generate some of the charts in this post, as well as a sample of the Plotly chart and CSV table of the results. The code can be easily tweaked if you wish to generate results for multiple speeches in one go. The data comprises six official speech transcripts taken from the websites of the Singapore Government as well as the Prime Minister's Office. These speeches focused on the Government's plans to deal with the challenges from Covid-19, and are set to frame the broader debate for Singapore's upcoming election. Some excessively long chunks of text were broken up into smaller paragraphs for a fairer assessment of the sentiment, but the vast majority of the speeches were analysed in their original form.
English is one of the most widely used languages worldwide, with approximately 1.2 billion speakers. In order to maximise the performance of speech-to-text systems it is vital to build them in a way that recognises different accents. Recently, spoken dialogue systems have been incorporated into various devices such as smartphones, call services, and navigation systems. These intelligent agents can assist users in performing daily tasks such as booking tickets, setting-up calendar items, or finding restaurants via spoken interaction. They have the potential to be more widely used in a vast range of applications in the future, especially in the education, government, healthcare, and entertainment sectors.
The world is in the midst of an energy transition. This massive shift aims to move away from reliance on fuels that are destructive to the climate, the environment, and people's well-being. The goal established by the UN is to "ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all" by 2030. While governments, energy companies, and activists dominate the headlines, the progress with infrastructure and technology won't be sufficient. A successful energy transition for the good of all humanity depends on the action of individuals.
In this tutorial I will guide you on how to detect emotions associated with textual data which can be either classified as either positive or negative and how can you apply that knowledge in variety of applications depending on what you wanna do. In this tutorial I will guide you on how to detect emotions associated with textual data which can be either classified as either positive or negative and how can you apply that knowledge in variety of applications depending on what you wanna do. For instance you want to perform automatic analysis of customer feedback with directly reading them as either positive or negative feedback you will need to Sentiment analyzer to check the negativity or positivity of the textual data.
Udemy Course Text Mining and Sentiment Analysis with Tableau and R NED Text Analysis 101: Sentiment Analysis in Tableau & R. At the Tableau Partner Summit in London I attended a session about statistics and sets in Tableau. In this session, Oliver Linder, Sales Consultant at Tableau Bestseller What you'll learn Connect Twitter and R to harvest Tweets for certain keywords Perform sentiment analysis based on a simple lexicon approach Clean and process Tweets for further analysis Export text based data and sentiment scores from R Use Tableau to visualize sentiment analysis data Identify situations where sentiment analysis can be applied in a company Description Extract valuable info out of Twitter for marketing, finance, academic or professional research and much more. This course harnesses the upside of R and Tableau to do sentiment analysis on Twitter data. With sentiment analysis you find out if the crowd has a rather positive or negative opinion towards a given search term. This search term can be a product (like in the course) but it can also be a person, region, company or basically anything as long as it is mentioned regularly on Twitter.
But how do you turn that feedback into meaningful customer insights? In the past, companies used things like surveys to try to narrow down a general good/bad/neutral response to their recent marketing campaign or product. Still, there is so much more information in the form of unstructured data that could help companies better understand their customers. Whether they are using social media, blogs, forums, reviews, or online news commenting, customers are sharing their opinions in tons of different ways every single day. The only issue: many of these opinions are shared in nuanced ways that traditional AI hasn't been able to navigate.
Recently, NLP has seen a surge in the usage of large pre-trained models. Users download weights of models pre-trained on large datasets, then fine-tune the weights on a task of their choice. This raises the question of whether downloading untrusted pre-trained weights can pose a security threat. In this paper, we show that it is possible to construct ``weight poisoning'' attacks where pre-trained weights are injected with vulnerabilities that expose ``backdoors'' after fine-tuning, enabling the attacker to manipulate the model prediction simply by injecting an arbitrary keyword. We show that by applying a regularization method, which we call RIPPLe, and an initialization procedure, which we call Embedding Surgery, such attacks are possible even with limited knowledge of the dataset and fine-tuning procedure. Our experiments on sentiment classification, toxicity detection, and spam detection show that this attack is widely applicable and poses a serious threat. Finally, we outline practical defenses against such attacks. Code to reproduce our experiments is available at https://github.com/neulab/RIPPLe.
Dialogue state tracking (DST) is at the heart of task-oriented dialogue systems. However, the scarcity of labeled data is an obstacle to building accurate and robust state tracking systems that work across a variety of domains. Existing approaches generally require some dialogue data with state information and their ability to generalize to unknown domains is limited. In this paper, we propose using machine reading comprehension (RC) in state tracking from two perspectives: model architectures and datasets. We divide the slot types in dialogue state into categorical or extractive to borrow the advantages from both multiple-choice and span-based reading comprehension models. Our method achieves near the current state-of-the-art in joint goal accuracy on MultiWOZ 2.1 given full training data. More importantly, by leveraging machine reading comprehension datasets, our method outperforms the existing approaches by many a large margin in few-shot scenarios when the availability of in-domain data is limited. Lastly, even without any state tracking data, i.e., zero-shot scenario, our proposed approach achieves greater than 90% average slot accuracy in 12 out of 30 slots in MultiWOZ 2.1.
Reinforcement-based training methods have emerged as the most popular choice to train an efficient and effective dialog policy. However, these methods are suffering from sparse and unstable reward signals usually returned from the user simulator at the end of the dialog. Besides, the reward signal is manually designed by human experts which requires domain knowledge. A number of adversarial learning methods have been proposed to learn the reward function together with the dialog policy. However, to alternatively update the dialog policy and the reward model on the fly, the algorithms to update the dialog policy are limited to policy gradient-based algorithms, such as REINFORCE and PPO. Besides, the alternative training of the dialog agent and the reward model can easily get stuck in local optimum or result in mode collapse. In this work, we propose to decompose the previous adversarial training into two different steps. We first train the discriminator with an auxiliary dialog generator and then incorporate this trained reward model to a common reinforcement learning method to train a high-quality dialog agent. This approach is applicable to both on-policy and off-policy reinforcement learning methods. By conducting several experiments, we show the proposed methods can achieve remarkable task success and its potential to transfer knowledge from existing domains to a new domain.
Dialogue state tracking (DST) aims at estimating the current dialogue state given all the preceding conversation. For multi-domain DST, the data sparsity problem is a major obstacle due to increased numbers of state candidates and dialogue lengths. To encode the dialogue context efficiently, we propose to utilize the previous dialogue state (predicted) and the current dialogue utterance as the input for DST. To consider relations among different domain-slots, the schema graph involving prior knowledge is exploited. In this paper, a novel context and schema fusion network is proposed to encode the dialogue context and schema graph by using internal and external attention mechanisms. Experiment results show that our approach can obtain new state-of-the-art performance of the open-vocabulary DST on both MultiWOZ 2.0 and MultiWOZ 2.1 benchmarks.