Understanding Language in Conversations "The problems addressed in discourse research aim to answer two general kinds of questions: (1) what information is contained in extended sequences of utterances that goes beyond the meaning of the individual utterances themselves? (2) how does the context in which an utterance is used affect the meaning of the individual utterances, or parts of them?"
– Barbara Grosz. Overview of Chapter 6: Discourse and Dialogue, Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology (1996).
Punchh, the leader in digital marketing solutions for physical retailers, today announced the launch of Punchh Deep Sentiment Analysis. The new product allows brands to extract valuable insights from customer reviews using Punchh's natural language comprehension engine built with industry-leading deep learning and artificial intelligence. Its natural language processing model achieves human-level performance, defined as more than 93 percent accurate, and features multi-language support. "In today's hyper-competitive climate, brands need to do everything they can to foster and nurture direct customer relationships, and paying attention to customer reviews is an essential part of that," said Shyam Rao, CEO of Punchh. "Manually reading every review is prohibitively time-consuming for most retailers, which leads to slower response times and poor customer experiences. Our solution uses AI and machine learning to help brands analyze reviews at scale and immediately identify critical information so they can focus on high-level insights and make quick decisions to strengthen customer relationships and increase loyalty."
Human emotions are complex and difficult to decode. However, recent advancements in artificial intelligence and deep learning, are enabling new leaps in sentiment analysis. Put simply, sentiment analysis is a machine decoding human emotions for a specific purpose. Applications vary from mining opinions to gauging political inclinations to see how product reviews are affecting real-time sales. Social media companies actively use sentiment analysis to root out offensive and prejudiced content.
We develop an online variational Bayes (VB) algorithm for Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Online LDA is based on online stochastic optimization with a natural gradient step, which we show converges to a local optimum of the VB objective function. It can handily analyze massive document collections, including those arriving in a stream. We study the performance of online LDA in several ways, including by fitting a 100-topic topic model to 3.3M articles from Wikipedia in a single pass. We demonstrate that online LDA finds topic models as good or better than those found with batch VB, and in a fraction of the time.
We present ConvLab, an open-source multi-domain end-to-end dialog system platform, that enables researchers to quickly set up experiments with reusable components and compare a large set of different approaches, ranging from conventional pipeline systems to end-to-end neural models, in common environments. ConvLab offers a set of fully annotated datasets and associated pre-trained reference models. As a showcase, we extend the MultiWOZ dataset with user dialog act annotations to train all component models and demonstrate how ConvLab makes it easy and effortless to conduct complicated experiments in multi-domain end-to-end dialog settings.
We propose a new topic modeling procedure that takes advantage of the fact that the There are many extensions of LDA, including a nonparametric Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) log likelihood extension based on the Dirichlet process function is asymptotically equivalent called Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (Teh et al., to the logarithm of the volume of the topic 2005), a correlated topic extension based on the logistic simplex. This allows topic modeling to be normal prior on the topic proportions (Lafferty reformulated as finding the probability simplex and Blei, 2006), and a time-varying topic modeling that minimizes its volume and encloses extension (Blei and Lafferty, 2006). There are the documents that are represented as distributions two main approaches for estimation of the parameters over words. A convex relaxation of probabilistic topic models: the variational of the minimum volume topic model optimization approximation popularized by Blei et al. (2003) and is proposed, and it is shown that the sampling based approach studied by Pritchard the relaxed problem has the same global et al. (2000).
This 3-month course is an intro to data science for beginners. In this video, I'll explain how a popular data science technique called sentiment analysis works using a real-world scenario. We'll play the role of a data scientist working at a startup making a personal healthcare device. Using sentiment analysis, we'll understand how consumers feel about a competitors product. That'll help us make decisions on how to promote our own product, and what feature we can focus on the most.
Defining action spaces for conversational agents and optimizing their decision-making process with reinforcement learning is an enduring challenge. Common practice has been to use handcrafted dialog acts, or the output vocabulary, e.g. in neural encoder decoders, as the action spaces. Both have their own limitations. This paper proposes a novel latent action framework that treats the action spaces of an end-to-end dialog agent as latent variables and develops unsupervised methods in order to induce its own action space from the data. Comprehensive experiments are conducted examining both continuous and discrete action types and two different optimization methods based on stochastic variational inference. Results show that the proposed latent actions achieve superior empirical performance improvement over previous word-level policy gradient methods on both DealOrNoDeal and MultiWoz dialogs. Our detailed analysis also provides insights about various latent variable approaches for policy learning and can serve as a foundation for developing better latent actions in future research.
Machine learning clustering techniques are not the only way to extract topics from a text data set. Text mining literature has proposed a number of statistical models, known as probabilistic topic models, to detect topics from an unlabeled set of documents. One of the most popular models is the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) algorithm developed by Blei, Ng, and Jordan [i]. LDA is a generative unsupervised probabilistic algorithm that isolates the top K topics in a data set as described by the most relevant N keywords. In other words, the documents in the data set are represented as random mixtures of latent topics, where each topic is characterized by a Dirichlet distribution over a fixed vocabulary.
Sentiment analysis is a task that may suffer from a lack of data in certain cases, as the datasets are often generated and annotated by humans. In cases where data is inadequate for training discriminative models, generate models may aid training via data augmentation. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are one such model that has advanced the state of the art in several tasks, including as image and text generation. In this paper, I train GAN models on low resource datasets, then use them for the purpose of data augmentation towards improving sentiment classifier generalization. Given the constraints of limited data, I explore various techniques to train the GAN models. I also present an analysis of the quality of generated GAN data as more training data for the GAN is made available. In this analysis, the generated data is evaluated as a test set (against a model trained on real data points) as well as a training set to train classification models. Finally, I also conduct a visual analysis by projecting the generated and the real data into a two-dimensional space using the t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) method.
Detecting and aggregating sentiments toward people, organizations, and events expressed in unstructured social media have become critical text mining operations. Early systems detected sentiments over whole passages, whereas more recently, target-specific sentiments have been of greater interest. In this paper, we present MTTDSC, a multi-task target-dependent sentiment classification system that is informed by feature representation learnt for the related auxiliary task of passage-level sentiment classification. The auxiliary task uses a gated recurrent unit (GRU) and pools GRU states, followed by an auxiliary fully-connected layer that outputs passage-level predictions. In the main task, these GRUs contribute auxiliary per-token representations over and above word embeddings. The main task has its own, separate GRUs. The auxiliary and main GRUs send their states to a different fully connected layer, trained for the main task. Extensive experiments using two auxiliary datasets and three benchmark datasets (of which one is new, introduced by us) for the main task demonstrate that MTTDSC outperforms state-of-the-art baselines. Using word-level sensitivity analysis, we present anecdotal evidence that prior systems can make incorrect target-specific predictions because they miss sentiments expressed by words independent of target.