Understanding Language in Conversations "The problems addressed in discourse research aim to answer two general kinds of questions: (1) what information is contained in extended sequences of utterances that goes beyond the meaning of the individual utterances themselves? (2) how does the context in which an utterance is used affect the meaning of the individual utterances, or parts of them?"
– Barbara Grosz. Overview of Chapter 6: Discourse and Dialogue, Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology (1996).
Listening to what's being said about your brand can be invaluable for any business. Humans can identify positive and negative sentiments, identify slang, sarcasm, irony, and more. However, the enormous volumes of chatter on the internet make it difficult to determine the overall public sentiments. No need to get anxious, that is exactly what sentiment analysis tools are for. Sentiment analysis tools can help you compile and analyze everything that's being said about your brand.
In this course I will cover, how to develop a Sentiment Analysis model to categorize a tweet as Positive or Negative using NLP techniques and Machine Learning Models. This is a hands on project where I will teach you the step by step process in creating and evaluating a machine learning model and finally deploying the same on Cloud platforms to let your customers interact with your model via an user interface. This course will walk you through the initial data exploration and understanding, data analysis, data pre-processing, data preparation, model building, evaluation and deployment techniques. We will explore NLP concepts and then use multiple ML algorithms to create our model and finally focus into one which performs the best on the given dataset. At the end we will learn to create an User Interface to interact with our created model and finally deploy the same on Cloud.
Since the feud between James and Tati took place in 2019, we will scrape Tweets from that time. We can do this with the help of a library called Twint. First, install this library with a simple pip intall twint . Now, let's run the following lines of code: The above lines of code will scrape 50K Tweets with the hashtag #jamescharles from January 2019. Let's now take a look at some of the variables present in the data frame: The data frame has 35 columns, and I've only attached a screenshot of half of them.
Incorporating explicit domain knowledge into neural-based task-oriented dialogue systems is an effective way to reduce the need of large sets of annotated dialogues. In this paper, we investigate how the use of explicit domain knowledge of conversational designers affects the performance of neural-based dialogue systems. To support this investigation, we propose the Conversational-Logic-Injection-in-Neural-Network system (CLINN) where explicit knowledge is coded in semi-logical rules. By using CLINN, we evaluated semi-logical rules produced by a team of differently skilled conversational designers. We experimented with the Restaurant topic of the MultiWOZ dataset. Results show that external knowledge is extremely important for reducing the need of annotated examples for conversational systems. In fact, rules from conversational designers used in CLINN significantly outperform a state-of-the-art neural-based dialogue system.
The increasing use of social media sites in countries like India has given rise to large volumes of code-mixed data. Sentiment analysis of this data can provide integral insights into people's perspectives and opinions. Developing robust explainability techniques which explain why models make their predictions becomes essential. In this paper, we propose an adequate methodology to integrate explainable approaches into code-mixed sentiment analysis.
Voice of customers, why do you need it? Customers expect more than ever from the brands they use. They expect products and services to perform exactly to their needs–easy to set up, easy to use, etc–and more personalized and empathetic customer service. In 2021, customers want to get in touch with your company from wherever they choose – in-app, on live chat, email, phone, etc. In fact, a recent Zendesk CX trends report shows that 64% of customers used a completely new support channel in 2020 and 73% of them plan to continue using it.
A significant part of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for sentiment analysis is based on supervised methods, which are affected by the quality of data. Therefore, sentiment analysis needs to be prepared for data quality issues, such as imbalance and lack of labeled data. Data augmentation methods, widely adopted in image classification tasks, include data-space solutions to tackle the problem of limited data and enhance the size and quality of training datasets to provide better models. In this work, we study the advantages and drawbacks of text augmentation methods such as EDA, back-translation, BART, and PREDATOR) with recent classification algorithms (LSTM, GRU, CNN, BERT, ERNIE, RF, and SVM, that have attracted sentiment-analysis researchers and industry applications. We explored seven sentiment-analysis datasets to provide scenarios of imbalanced datasets and limited data to discuss the influence of a given classifier in overcoming these problems, and provide insights into promising combinations of transformation, paraphrasing, and generation methods of sentence augmentation.
Attention scorers have achieved success in parsing tasks like semantic and syntactic dependency parsing. However, in tasks modeled into parsing, like structured sentiment analysis, "dependency edges" are very sparse which hinders parser performance. Thus we propose a sparse and fuzzy attention scorer with pooling layers which improves parser performance and sets the new state-of-the-art on structured sentiment analysis. We further explore the parsing modeling on structured sentiment analysis with second-order parsing and introduce a novel sparse second-order edge building procedure that leads to significant improvement in parsing performance.
Automatic dialog systems have become a mainstream part of online customer service. Many such systems are built, maintained, and improved by customer service specialists, rather than dialog systems engineers and computer programmers. As conversations between people and machines become commonplace, it is critical to understand what is working, what is not, and what actions can be taken to reduce the frequency of inappropriate system responses. These analyses and recommendations need to be presented in terms that directly reflect the user experience rather than the internal dialog processing. This paper introduces and explains the use of Actionable Conversational Quality Indicators (ACQIs), which are used both to recognize parts of dialogs that can be improved, and to recommend how to improve them. This combines benefits of previous approaches, some of which have focused on producing dialog quality scoring while others have sought to categorize the types of errors the dialog system is making. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using ACQIs on LivePerson internal dialog systems used in commercial customer service applications, and on the publicly available CMU LEGOv2 conversational dataset (Raux et al. 2005). We report on the annotation and analysis of conversational datasets showing which ACQIs are important to fix in various situations. The annotated datasets are then used to build a predictive model which uses a turn-based vector embedding of the message texts and achieves an 79% weighted average f1-measure at the task of finding the correct ACQI for a given conversation. We predict that if such a model worked perfectly, the range of potential improvement actions a bot-builder must consider at each turn could be reduced by an average of 81%.
Language Models (LMs) have been ubiquitously leveraged in various tasks including spoken language understanding (SLU). Spoken language requires careful understanding of speaker interactions, dialog states and speech induced multimodal behaviors to generate a meaningful representation of the conversation. In this work, we propose to dissect SLU into three representative properties:conversational (disfluency, pause, overtalk), channel (speaker-type, turn-tasks) and ASR (insertion, deletion,substitution). We probe BERT based language models (BERT, RoBERTa) trained on spoken transcripts to investigate its ability to understand multifarious properties in absence of any speech cues. Empirical results indicate that LM is surprisingly good at capturing conversational properties such as pause prediction and overtalk detection from lexical tokens. On the downsides, the LM scores low on turn-tasks and ASR errors predictions. Additionally, pre-training the LM on spoken transcripts restrain its linguistic understanding. Finally, we establish the efficacy and transferability of the mentioned properties on two benchmark datasets: Switchboard Dialog Act and Disfluency datasets.