Understanding Language in Conversations "The problems addressed in discourse research aim to answer two general kinds of questions: (1) what information is contained in extended sequences of utterances that goes beyond the meaning of the individual utterances themselves? (2) how does the context in which an utterance is used affect the meaning of the individual utterances, or parts of them?"
– Barbara Grosz. Overview of Chapter 6: Discourse and Dialogue, Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology (1996).
Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) deals with the extraction of sentiments and their targets. Collecting labeled data for this task in order to help neural networks generalize better can be laborious and time-consuming. As an alternative, similar data to the real-world examples can be produced artificially through an adversarial process which is carried out in the embedding space. Although these examples are not real sentences, they have been shown to act as a regularization method which can make neural networks more robust. In this work, we apply adversarial training, which was put forward by Goodfellow et al. (2014), to the post-trained BERT (BERT-PT) language model proposed by Xu et al. (2019) on the two major tasks of Aspect Extraction and Aspect Sentiment Classification in sentiment analysis. After improving the results of post-trained BERT by an ablation study, we propose a novel architecture called BERT Adversarial Training (BAT) to utilize adversarial training in ABSA. The proposed model outperforms post-trained BERT in both tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the application of adversarial training in ABSA.
Certain type of documents such as tweets are collected by specifying a set of keywords. As topics of interest change with time it is beneficial to adjust keywords dynamically. The challenge is that these need to be specified ahead of knowing the forthcoming documents and the underlying topics. The future topics should mimic past topics of interest yet there should be some novelty in them. We develop a keyword-based topic model that dynamically selects a subset of keywords to be used to collect future documents. The generative process first selects keywords and then the underlying documents based on the specified keywords. The model is trained by using a variational lower bound and stochastic gradient optimization. The inference consists of finding a subset of keywords where given a subset the model predicts the underlying topic-word matrix for the unknown forthcoming documents. We compare the keyword topic model against a benchmark model using viral predictions of tweets combined with a topic model. The keyword-based topic model outperforms this sophisticated baseline model by 67%.
Online Social Networks(OSNs) have established virtual platforms enabling people to express their opinions, interests and thoughts in a variety of contexts and domains, allowing legitimate users as well as spammers and other untrustworthy users to publish and spread their content. Hence, the concept of social trust has attracted the attention of information processors/data scientists and information consumers/business firms. One of the main reasons for acquiring the value of Social Big Data (SBD) is to provide frameworks and methodologies using which the credibility of OSNs users can be evaluated. These approaches should be scalable to accommodate large-scale social data. Hence, there is a need for well comprehending of social trust to improve and expand the analysis process and inferring the credibility of SBD. Given the exposed environment's settings and fewer limitations related to OSNs, the medium allows legitimate and genuine users as well as spammers and other low trustworthy users to publish and spread their content. Hence, this paper presents an approach incorporates semantic analysis and machine learning modules to measure and predict users' trustworthiness in numerous domains in different time periods. The evaluation of the conducted experiment validates the applicability of the incorporated machine learning techniques to predict highly trustworthy domain-based users.
As the field of Spoken Dialogue Systems and Conversational AI grows, so does the need for tools and environments that abstract away implementation details in order to expedite the development process, lower the barrier of entry to the field, and offer a common test-bed for new ideas. In this paper, we present Plato, a flexible Conversational AI platform written in Python that supports any kind of conversational agent architecture, from standard architectures to architectures with jointly-trained components, single- or multi-party interactions, and offline or online training of any conversational agent component. Plato has been designed to be easy to understand and debug and is agnostic to the underlying learning frameworks that train each component.
Tweet classification has attracted considerable attention recently. Most of the existing work on tweet classification focuses on topic classification, which classifies tweets into several predefined categories, and sentiment classification, which classifies tweets into positive, negative and neutral. Since tweets are different from conventional text in that they generally are of limited length and contain informal, irregular or new words, so it is difficult to determine user intention to publish a tweet and user attitude towards certain topic. In this paper, we aim to simultaneously classify tweet purpose, i.e., the intention for user to publish a tweet, and position, i.e., supporting, opposing or being neutral to a given topic. By transforming this problem to a multi-label classification problem, a multi-label classification method with post-processing is proposed. Experiments on real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and the results outperform the individual classification methods.
--Sentiment Analysis of microblog feeds has attracted considerable interest in recent times. Most of the current work focuses on tweet sentiment classification. But not much work has been done to explore how reliable the opinions of the mass (crowd wisdom) in social network microblogs such as twitter are in predicting outcomes of certain events such as election debates. In this work, we investigate whether crowd wisdom is useful in predicting such outcomes and whether their opinions are influenced by the experts in the field. We work in the domain of multi-label classification to perform sentiment classification of tweets and obtain the opinion of the crowd. This learnt sentiment is then used to predict outcomes of events such as: US Presidential Debate winners, Grammy A ward winners, Super Bowl Winners. We find that in most of the cases, the wisdom of the crowd does indeed match with that of the experts, and in cases where they don't (particularly in the case of debates), we see that the crowd's opinion is actually influenced by that of the experts. I NTRODUCTION Over the past few years, microblogs have become one of the most popular online social networks. Microblogging websites have evolved to become a source of varied kinds of information. This is due to the nature of microblogs: people post real-time messages about their opinions and express sentiment on a variety of topics, discuss current issues, complain, etc. Twitter is one such popular microblogging service where users create status messages (called "tweets"). With over 400 million tweets per day on Twitter, microblog users generate large amount of data, which cover very rich topics ranging from politics, sports to celebrity gossip. Because the user generated content on microblogs covers rich topics and expresses sentiment/opinions of the mass, mining and analyzing this information can prove to be very beneficial both to the industrial and the academic community. Tweet classification has attracted considerable attention because it has become very important to analyze peoples' sentiments and opinions over social networks.
An increase in the use of smartphones has laid to the use of the internet and social media platforms. The most commonly used social media platforms are Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram. People are sharing their personal experiences, reviews, feedbacks on the web. The information which is available on the web is unstructured and enormous. Hence, there is a huge scope of research on understanding the sentiment of the data available on the web. Sentiment Analysis (SA) can be carried out on the reviews, feedbacks, discussions available on the web. There has been extensive research carried out on SA in the English language, but data on the web also contains different other languages which should be analyzed. This paper aims to analyze, review and discuss the approaches, algorithms, challenges faced by the researchers while carrying out the SA on Indigenous languages.
T ask-Oriented Dialog Systems that Consider Multiple Appropriate Responses under the Same Context Yichi Zhang Tsinghua University Beijing, China email@example.com Abstract Conversations have an intrinsic one-to-many property, which means that multiple responses can be appropriate for the same dialog context. In task-oriented dialogs, this property leads to different valid dialog policies towards task completion. However, none of the existing task-oriented dialog generation approaches takes this property into account. We propose a Multi-Action Data Augmentation (MADA) framework to utilize the one-to-many property to generate diverse appropriate dialog responses. Specifically, we first use dialog states to summarize the dialog history, and then discover all possible mappings from every dialog state to its different valid system actions. During dialog system training, we enable the current dialog state to map to all valid system actions discovered in the previous process to create additional state-action pairs. By incorporating these additional pairs, the dialog policy learns a balanced action distribution, which further guides the dialog model to generate diverse responses. Experimental results show that the proposed framework consistently improves dialog policy diversity, and results in improved response diversity and appropriateness. Introduction One big challenge in dialog system generation is that multiple responses can be appropriate under the same conversation context. This challenge originated from the intrinsic diversity of human conversations.
Automatic text summarization (ATS) has recently achieved impressive performance thanks to recent advances in deep learning and the availability of large-scale corpora. To make the summarization results more faithful, this paper presents an unsupervised approach that combines rhetorical structure theory, deep neural model and domain knowledge concern for ATS. This architecture mainly contains three components: domain knowledge base construction based on representation learning, attentional encoder-decoder model for rhetorical parsing and subroutine-based model for text summarization. Domain knowledge can be effectively used for unsupervised rhetorical parsing thus rhetorical structure trees for each document can be derived. In the unsupervised rhetorical parsing module, the idea of translation was adopted to alleviate the problem of data scarcity. The subroutine-based summarization model purely depends on the derived rhetorical structure trees and can generate content-balanced results. To evaluate the summary results without golden standard, we proposed an unsupervised evaluation metric, whose hyper-parameters were tuned by supervised learning. Experimental results show that, on a large-scale Chinese dataset, our proposed approach can obtain comparable performances compared with existing methods.
Consumer sentiment in Japan weakened for the 12th straight month in September, hitting its lowest level since the survey started in April 2013, a Cabinet Office survey showed Wednesday. The seasonally adjusted consumer confidence index dropped 1.5 points from the previous month to 35.6, ahead of Tuesday's consumption tax increase. The survey covered households of two or more people. The index was lower than the 37.1 marked when the consumption tax was previously raised in April 2014. The latest tax increase may dent personal consumption, a key engine of Japan's economic growth at a time when exports have been dropping amid a prolonged U.S.-China trade war.