Transfer Learning

Using Transfer Learning to Overcome the Barriers Facing Machine Learning in Materials Science - News


Machine learning's ability to perform intellectually demanding tasks across various fields, materials science included, has caused it to receive considerable attention. Many believe that it could be used to unlock major time and cost savings in the development of new materials. The growing demand for the use of machine learning to derive fast-to-evaluate surrogate models of material properties has prompted scientists at the National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba, Japan, to demonstrate that it could be the key driver of the "next frontier" of materials science in recently published research. To learn, machines rely on processing data using both supervised and unsupervised learning. With no data, however, there is nothing to learn from.

Gaussian Process Models for Link Analysis and Transfer Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper we develop a Gaussian process (GP) framework to model a collection of reciprocal random variables defined on the \emph{edges} of a network. We show how to construct GP priors, i.e., covariance functions, on the edges of directed, undirected, and bipartite graphs. The model suggests an intimate connection between \emph{link prediction} and \emph{transfer learning}, which were traditionally considered two separate research topics. Though a straightforward GP inference has a very high complexity, we develop an efficient learning algorithm that can handle a large number of observations. The experimental results on several real-world data sets verify superior learning capacity.

Multitask Learning without Label Correspondences

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose an algorithm to perform multitask learning where each task has potentially distinct label sets and label correspondences are not readily available. This is in contrast with existing methods which either assume that the label sets shared by different tasks are the same or that there exists a label mapping oracle. Our method directly maximizes the mutual information among the labels, and we show that the resulting objective function can be efficiently optimized using existing algorithms. Our proposed approach has a direct application for data integration with different label spaces for the purpose of classification, such as integrating Yahoo! and DMOZ web directories. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Transfer Learning by Distribution Matching for Targeted Advertising

Neural Information Processing Systems

We address the problem of learning classifiers for several related tasks that may differ in their joint distribution of input and output variables. For each task, small - possibly even empty - labeled samples and large unlabeled samples are available. While the unlabeled samples reflect the target distribution, the labeled samples may be biased. We derive a solution that produces resampling weights which match the pool of all examples to the target distribution of any given task. Our work is motivated by the problem of predicting sociodemographic features for users of web portals, based on the content which they have accessed.

Learning To Learn Around A Common Mean

Neural Information Processing Systems

The problem of learning-to-learn (LTL) or meta-learning is gaining increasing attention due to recent empirical evidence of its effectiveness in applications. The goal addressed in LTL is to select an algorithm that works well on tasks sampled from a meta-distribution. In this work, we consider the family of algorithms given by a variant of Ridge Regression, in which the regularizer is the square distance to an unknown mean vector. We show that, in this setting, the LTL problem can be reformulated as a Least Squares (LS) problem and we exploit a novel meta- algorithm to efficiently solve it. At each iteration the meta-algorithm processes only one dataset.

Hardware Conditioned Policies for Multi-Robot Transfer Learning

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deep reinforcement learning could be used to learn dexterous robotic policies but it is challenging to transfer them to new robots with vastly different hardware properties. It is also prohibitively expensive to learn a new policy from scratch for each robot hardware due to the high sample complexity of modern state-of-the-art algorithms. We propose a novel approach called Hardware Conditioned Policies where we train a universal policy conditioned on a vector representation of robot hardware. We considered robots in simulation with varied dynamics, kinematic structure, kinematic lengths and degrees-of-freedom. First, we use the kinematic structure directly as the hardware encoding and show great zero-shot transfer to completely novel robots not seen during training.

Transfer Learning with Neural AutoML

Neural Information Processing Systems

We reduce the computational cost of Neural AutoML with transfer learning. Neural AutoML has become popular for the design of deep learning architectures, however, this method has a high computation cost. To address this we propose Transfer Neural AutoML that uses knowledge from prior tasks to speed up network design. We extend RL-based architecture search methods to support parallel training on multiple tasks and then transfer the search strategy to new tasks. On language and image classification data, Transfer Neural AutoML reduces convergence time over single-task training by over an order of magnitude on many tasks.

Learning to Model the Tail

Neural Information Processing Systems

We describe an approach to learning from long-tailed, imbalanced datasets that are prevalent in real-world settings. Here, the challenge is to learn accurate "few-shot'' models for classes in the tail of the class distribution, for which little data is available. We cast this problem as transfer learning, where knowledge from the data-rich classes in the head of the distribution is transferred to the data-poor classes in the tail. Our key insights are as follows. First, we propose to transfer meta-knowledge about learning-to-learn from the head classes.

Sparse Overlapping Sets Lasso for Multitask Learning and its Application to fMRI Analysis

Neural Information Processing Systems

Multitask learning can be effective when features useful in one task are also useful for other tasks, and the group lasso is a standard method for selecting a common subset of features. In this paper, we are interested in a less restrictive form of multitask learning, wherein (1) the available features can be organized into subsets according to a notion of similarity and (2) features useful in one task are similar, but not necessarily identical, to the features best suited for other tasks. The main contribution of this paper is a new procedure called {\em Sparse Overlapping Sets (SOS) lasso}, a convex optimization that automatically selects similar features for related learning tasks. Error bounds are derived for SOSlasso and its consistency is established for squared error loss. In particular, SOSlasso is motivated by multi-subject fMRI studies in which functional activity is classified using brain voxels as features.

Transfer Learning in a Transductive Setting

Neural Information Processing Systems

Category models for objects or activities typically rely on supervised learning requiring sufficiently large training sets. Transferring knowledge from known categories to novel classes with no or only a few labels however is far less researched even though it is a common scenario. In this work, we extend transfer learning with semi-supervised learning to exploit unlabeled instances of (novel) categories with no or only a few labeled instances. Our proposed approach Propagated Semantic Transfer combines three main ingredients. First, we transfer information from known to novel categories by incorporating external knowledge, such as linguistic or expert-specified information, e.g., by a mid-level layer of semantic attributes.