Support vector machines (SVMs, also support vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data used for classification and regression analysis. (Wikipedia)
The processing power required to extract value from the unmanageable swaths of data currently being collected, and especially to apply artificial intelligence techniques such as machine learning, keeps increasing. Researchers have been trying to figure out a way to expedite these processes applying quantum computing algorithms to artificial intelligence techniques, giving rise in the process to a new discipline that's been dubbed Quantum Machine Learning (QML). The race to make good on quantum computing is well underway. Millions of dollars have been allocated to developing machines that could cause current computers to become obsolete. But, what is the difference between quantum and classical computing?
This 20-hour Machine Learning with Python course covers all the basic machine learning methods and Python modules (especially Scikit-Learn) for implementing them. The five sessions cover: simple and multiple Linear regressions; classification methods including logistic regression, discriminant analysis and naive bayes, support vector machines (SVMs) and tree based methods; cross-validation and feature selection; regularization; principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering algorithms. After successfully completing of this course, you will be able to explain the principles of machine learning algorithms and implement these methods to analyze complex datasets and make predictions in Python.
Deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) methods have recently contributed to the advancement of models in the various aspects of prediction, planning, and uncertainty analysis of smart cities and urban development. This paper presents the state of the art of DL and ML methods used in this realm. Through a novel taxonomy, the advances in model development and new application domains in urban sustainability and smart cities are presented. Findings reveal that five DL and ML methods have been most applied to address the different aspects of smart cities. These are artificial neural networks; support vector machines; decision trees; ensembles, Bayesians, hybrids, and neuro-fuzzy; and deep learning.
Machine Learning for Physics and the Physics of Learning 2019 Workshop IV: Using Physical Insights for Machine Learning "Innovating machine learning with near-term quantum computing" Maria Schuld - University of KwaZulu-Natal & Xanadu Abstract: Algorithms that run on quantum computers - so-called quantum circuits - underlie different laws of information processing than conventional computations. By optimizing the physical parameters of quantum circuits we can turn these algorithms into trainable models which learn to generalize from data. This talk highlights different aspects of such "variational quantum machine learning algorithms", including their role in the development of near-term quantum technologies, their interpretation as a cross-breed of neural networks and support vector machines, strategies of automatic differentiation, and how to integrate quantum circuits with machine learning frameworks such as PyTorch and Tensorflow using open-source software.
Current machine learning models aiming to predict sepsis from electronic health records (EHR) do not account 20 for the heterogeneity of the condition despite its emerging importance in prognosis and treatment. This work demonstrates the added value of stratifying the types of organ dysfunction observed in patients who develop sepsis in the intensive care unit (ICU) in improving the ability to recognize patients at risk of sepsis from their EHR data. Using an ICU dataset of 13 728 records, we identify clinically significant sepsis subpopulations with distinct organ dysfunction patterns. We perform classification experiments with random forest, gradient boost trees, and support vector machines, using the identified subpopulations to distinguish patients who develop sepsis in the ICU from those who do not. The classification results show that features selected using sepsis subpopulations as background knowledge yield a superior performance in distinguishing septic from non-septic patients regardless of the classification model used.
Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have demonstrated the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in obtaining valuable insights to the operation of photonic nanostructures, which manipulate light for applications such as signal processing, communications, and computing. The study was recently published in the journal Advanced Intelligent Systems. By proper selection of the geometrical features of these nanoelements, a large range of system-level functionalities (e.g., filtering, lensing, frequency conversion) can be achieved. While most reports on using AI techniques in the field of nanophotonics are focused on the design and optimization of nanostructures, such as finding the geometrical features of meta-atoms, the new approach seeks to use the "intelligence" aspects of AI to understand the physics of these nanostructures, for example, in assessing the feasibility of a response from a given nanostructure. This new approach is implemented in two steps: in the first step, the relation between input and output of the nanostructure is highly simplified by dimensionality reduction.
Despite the variety of applications of AI in the clinical studies and healthcare services, they fall into two major categories: analysis of structured data, including images, genes and biomarkers, and analysis of unstructured data, such as notes, medical journals or patients' surveys to complement the structured data. The former approach is fueled by Machine Learning and Deep Learning Algorithms, while the latter rest on the specialized Natural Language Processing practices. ML algorithms chiefly extract features from data, such as patients' "traits" and medical outcomes of interest. For a long time, AI in healthcare was dominated by the logistic regression, the most simple and common algorithm when it is necessary to classify things. It was easy to use, quick to finish and easy to interpret.
We consider the problem of Support Vector Machine transduction, which involves a combinatorial problem with exponential computational complexity in the number of unlabeled examples. Although several studies are devoted to Transductive SVM, they suffer either from the high computation complexity or from the solutions of local optimum. To address this problem, we propose solving Transductive SVM via a convex relaxation, which converts the NP-hard problem to a semi-definite programming. Compared with the other SDP relaxation for Transductive SVM, the proposed algorithm is computationally more efficient with the number of free parameters reduced from O(n2) to O(n) where n is the number of examples. Empirical study with several benchmark data sets shows the promising performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison with other state-of-the-art implementations of Transductive SVM.
This paper explores the use of a Maximal Average Margin (MAM) optimality principle for the design of learning algorithms. It is shown that the application of this risk minimization principle results in a class of (computationally) simple learning machines similar to the classical Parzen window classifier. A direct relation with the Rademacher complexities is established, as such facilitating analysis and providing a notion of certainty of prediction. This analysis is related to Support Vector Machines by means of a margin transformation. The power of the MAM principle is illustrated further by application to ordinal regression tasks, resulting in an $O(n)$ algorithm able to process large datasets in reasonable time.
In this paper, we propose a method for support vector machine classification using indefinite kernels. Instead of directly minimizing or stabilizing a nonconvex loss function, our method simultaneously finds the support vectors and a proxy kernel matrix used in computing the loss. This can be interpreted as a robust classification problem where the indefinite kernel matrix is treated as a noisy observation of the true positive semidefinite kernel. Our formulation keeps the problem convex and relatively large problems can be solved efficiently using the analytic center cutting plane method. We compare the performance of our technique with other methods on several data sets.