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Support Vector Machines


A connection between the pattern classification problem and the General Linear Model for statistical inference

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A connection between the General Linear Model (GLM) in combination with classical statistical inference and the machine learning (MLE)-based inference is described in this paper. Firstly, the estimation of the GLM parameters is expressed as a Linear Regression Model (LRM) of an indicator matrix, that is, in terms of the inverse problem of regressing the observations. In other words, both approaches, i.e. GLM and LRM, apply to different domains, the observation and the label domains, and are linked by a normalization value at the least-squares solution. Subsequently, from this relationship we derive a statistical test based on a more refined predictive algorithm, i.e. the (non)linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) that maximizes the class margin of separation, within a permutation analysis. The MLE-based inference employs a residual score and includes the upper bound to compute a better estimation of the actual (real) error. Experimental results demonstrate how the parameter estimations derived from each model resulted in different classification performances in the equivalent inverse problem. Moreover, using real data the aforementioned predictive algorithms within permutation tests, including such model-free estimators, are able to provide a good trade-off between type I error and statistical power.


Robust Optimal Classification Trees under Noisy Labels

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper we propose a novel methodology to construct Optimal Classification Trees that takes into account that noisy labels may occur in the training sample. Our approach rests on two main elements: (1) the splitting rules for the classification trees are designed to maximize the separation margin between classes applying the paradigm of SVM; and (2) some of the labels of the training sample are allowed to be changed during the construction of the tree trying to detect the label noise. Both features are considered and integrated together to design the resulting Optimal Classification Tree. We present a Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming formulation for the problem, suitable to be solved using any of the available off-the-shelf solvers. The model is analyzed and tested on a battery of standard datasets taken from UCI Machine Learning repository, showing the effectiveness of our approach.


9 types of machine learning algorithms with a cheat sheet

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Types of machine learning algorithms are marked by use case, supervision level and utility. Decision tree algorithms provide multiple outcomes but need constant supervision, while GANs multiply data with minimal input. Explore algorithms from linear regression to Q-learning with this cheat sheet.


Learn the Preliminary Details Behind Support Vector Machines

#artificialintelligence

Support Vector Machines are a popular tool used in several branches of Machine Learning. In particular, they are extremely useful for binary classification. Support Vector Machines have their basis in the concept of separating hyperplanes, so it is useful to first be introduced to this concept. In this article, I introduce the method of classification via separating hyperplanes. We start off simple and describe how even linear regression can be used to make simple binary classifications.


A Weighted Solution to SVM Actionability and Interpretability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Research in machine learning has successfully developed algorithms to build accurate classification models. However, in many real-world applications, such as healthcare, customer satisfaction, and environment protection, we want to be able to use the models to decide what actions to take. We investigate the concept of actionability in the context of Support Vector Machines. Actionability is as important as interpretability or explainability of machine learning models, an ongoing and important research topic. Actionability is the task that gives us ways to act upon machine learning models and their predictions. This paper finds a solution to the question of actionability on both linear and non-linear SVM models. Additionally, we introduce a way to account for weighted actions that allow for more change in certain features than others. We propose a gradient descent solution on the linear, RBF, and polynomial kernels, and we test the effectiveness of our models on both synthetic and real datasets. We are also able to explore the model's interpretability through the lens of actionability.


Modelling General Properties of Nouns by Selectively Averaging Contextualised Embeddings

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While the success of pre-trained language models has largely eliminated the need for high-quality static word vectors in many NLP applications, static word vectors continue to play an important role in tasks where word meaning needs to be modelled in the absence of linguistic context. In this paper, we explore how the contextualised embeddings predicted by BERT can be used to produce high-quality word vectors for such domains, in particular related to knowledge base completion, where our focus is on capturing the semantic properties of nouns. We find that a simple strategy of averaging the contextualised embeddings of masked word mentions leads to vectors that outperform the static word vectors learned by BERT, as well as those from standard word embedding models, in property induction tasks. We notice in particular that masking target words is critical to achieve this strong performance, as the resulting vectors focus less on idiosyncratic properties and more on general semantic properties. Inspired by this view, we propose a filtering strategy which is aimed at removing the most idiosyncratic mention vectors, allowing us to obtain further performance gains in property induction.


Understanding Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machine and their implementation in Python

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This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon. In this digital world, spam is the most troublesome challenge that everyone is facing. Sending spam messages to people causes various problems that may, in turn, cause economic losses. By spamming messages, we lose memory space, computing power, and speed. To remove these spam messages, we need to spend our time.


Natural Language Processing (NLP) in Python for Beginners

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Created by Laxmi Kant KGP Talkie Students also bought Unsupervised Machine Learning Hidden Markov Models in Python Machine Learning and AI: Support Vector Machines in Python Cutting-Edge AI: Deep Reinforcement Learning in Python Ensemble Machine Learning in Python: Random Forest, AdaBoost Deep Learning: Advanced Computer Vision (GANs, SSD, More!) Unsupervised Deep Learning in Python Preview this course GET COUPON CODE Description Welcome to KGP Talkie's Natural Language Processing course. It is designed to give you a complete understanding of Text Processing and Mining with the use of State-of-the-Art NLP algorithms in Python. We Learn Spacy and NLTK in details and we will also explore the uses of NLP in real-life. This course covers the basics of NLP to advance topics like word2vec, GloVe. In this course, we will start from level 0 to the advanced level.


Machine Learning made Easy : Hands-on python

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Machine Learning made Easy: Hands-on python, Hands-on Machine Learning Created by Shrirang KordePreview this Course - GET COUPON CODE The course covers Machine Learning in exhaustive way. The presentations and hands-on practical are made such that it's made easy. The knowledge gained through this tutorial series can be applied to various real world scenarios. UnSupervised Learning and Supervised Learning are dealt in-detail with lots of bonus topics. The course contents are given below: Introduction to Machine Learning Introductions to Deep Learning Unsupervised Learning Clustering, Association Agglomerative, Hands-on Mean Shift, Hands-on Association Rules, Hands-on (PCA: Principal Component Analysis) Regression, Classification Train Test Split, Hands-on k Nearest Neighbors, Hands-on kNN Algo Implementation Support Vector Machine (SVM), Hands-on Support Vector Regression (SVR), Hands-on SVM (non linear svm params), Hands-on SVM kernel trick, Hands-on Linear Regression, Hands-on Gradient Descent overview One Hot Encoding (Dummy vars) One Hot Encoding with Linear Regr, Hands-on Who this course is for: python programmers, C/C programmers, working of scripting (like javascript), fresh developers and intermediate level programmers who want to learn Machine Learning 100% Off Udemy Coupon .


A Odor Labeling Convolutional Encoder-Decoder for Odor Sensing in Machine Olfaction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine olfaction is usually crystallized as electronic noses (e-noses) which consist of an array of gas sensors mimicking biological noses to'smell' and'sense' odors [1]. Gas sensors in the array should be carefully selected based on several specifications (sensitivity, selectivity, response time, recovery time, etc.) for specific detecting purposes. On the other side, some general-purpose e-noses may have an array of gas sensors that are sensitive to a variety of odorous materials so that such e-noses can be applied to many fields. An increasing number of researches and applications utilized machine olfaction in recent years. In the early 20th century, some studies applied e-noses to the analysis of products along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometers (GC-MS) [2]. Some linear methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machines (SVM), etc. were used in the analysis [3].