In many experiments, the data points collected live in high-dimensional observation spaces, yet can be assigned a set of labels or parameters. In electrophysiological recordings, for instance, the responses of populations of neurons generally depend on mixtures of experimentally controlled parameters. The heterogeneity and diversity of these parameter dependencies can make visualization and interpretation of such data extremely difficult. Standard dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) can provide a succinct and complete description of the data, but the description is constructed independent of the relevant task variables and is often hard to interpret. Here, we start with the assumption that a particularly informative description is one that reveals the dependency of the high-dimensional data on the individual parameters.
Principal component analysis is a fundamental operation in computational data analysis, with myriad applications ranging from web search to bioinformatics to computer vision and image analysis. However, its performance and applicability in real scenarios are limited by a lack of robustness to outlying or corrupted observations. This paper considers the idealized "robust principal component analysis" problem of recovering a low rank matrix A from corrupted observations D A E. Here, the error entries E can be arbitrarily large (modeling grossly corrupted observations common in visual and bioinformatic data), but are assumed to be sparse. We prove that most matrices A can be efficiently and exactly recovered from most error sign-and-support patterns, by solving a simple convex program. Our result holds even when the rank of A grows nearly proportionally (up to a logarithmic factor) to the dimensionality of the observation space and the number of errors E grows in proportion to the total number of entries in the matrix.
Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) is a popular generalization of linear PCA that allows non-linear feature extraction. In KPCA, data in the input space is mapped to higher (usually) dimensional feature space where the data can be linearly modeled. The feature space is typically induced implicitly by a kernel function, and linear PCA in the feature space is performed via the kernel trick. However, due to the implicitness of the feature space, some extensions of PCA such as robust PCA cannot be directly generalized to KPCA. This paper presents a technique to overcome this problem, and extends it to a unified framework for treating noise, missing data, and outliers in KPCA.
Recently, supervised dimensionality reduction has been gaining attention, owing to the realization that data labels are often available and strongly suggest important underlying structures in the data. In this paper, we present a novel convex supervised dimensionality reduction approach based on exponential family PCA and provide a simple but novel form to project new testing data into the embedded space. This convex approach successfully avoids the local optima of the EM learning. Moreover, by introducing a sample-based multinomial approximation to exponential family models, it avoids the limitation of the prevailing Gaussian assumptions of standard PCA, and produces a kernelized formulation for nonlinear supervised dimensionality reduction. A training algorithm is then devised based on a subgradient bundle method, whose scalability can be gained through a coordinate descent procedure.
Sparse PCA provides a linear combination of small number of features that maximizes variance across data. Although Sparse PCA has apparent advantages compared to PCA, such as better interpretability, it is generally thought to be computationally much more expensive. In this paper, we demonstrate the surprising fact that sparse PCA can be easier than PCA in practice, and that it can be reliably applied to very large data sets. This comes from a rigorous feature elimination pre-processing result, coupled with the favorable fact that features in real-life data typically have exponentially decreasing variances, which allows for many features to be eliminated. We introduce a fast block coordinate ascent algorithm with much better computational complexity than the existing first-order ones.
This paper extends robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to nonlinear manifolds. Suppose that the observed data matrix is the sum of a sparse component and a component drawn from some low dimensional manifold. Is it possible to separate them by using similar ideas as RPCA? Is there any benefit in treating the manifold as a whole as opposed to treating each local region independently? We answer these two questions affirmatively by proposing and analyzing an optimization framework that separates the sparse component from the manifold under noisy data.
We study the distributed computing setting in which there are multiple servers, each holding a set of points, who wish to compute functions on the union of their point sets. A key task in this setting is Principal Component Analysis (PCA), in which the servers would like to compute a low dimensional subspace capturing as much of the variance of the union of their point sets as possible. Given a procedure for approximate PCA, one can use it to approximately solve problems such as $k$-means clustering and low rank approximation. The essential properties of an approximate distributed PCA algorithm are its communication cost and computational efficiency for a given desired accuracy in downstream applications. We give new algorithms and analyses for distributed PCA which lead to improved communication and computational costs for $k$-means clustering and related problems.
Estimating a vector from noisy quadratic observations is a task that arises naturally in many contexts, from dimensionality reduction, to synchronization and phase retrieval problems. It is often the case that additional information is available about the unknown vector (for instance, sparsity, sign or magnitude of its entries). Many authors propose non-convex quadratic optimization problems that aim at exploiting optimally this information. However, solving these problems is typically NP-hard. We consider a simple model for noisy quadratic observation of an unknown vector $\bvz$.
Principal component analysis (PCA), a well-established technique for data analysis and processing, provides a convenient form of dimensionality reduction that is effective for cleaning small Gaussian noises presented in the data. However, the applicability of standard principal component analysis in real scenarios is limited by its sensitivity to large errors. In this paper, we tackle the challenge problem of recovering data corrupted with errors of high magnitude by developing a novel robust transfer principal component analysis method. Our method is based on the assumption that useful information for the recovery of a corrupted data matrix can be gained from an uncorrupted related data matrix. Specifically, we formulate the data recovery problem as a joint robust principal component analysis problem on the two data matrices, with shared common principal components across matrices and individual principal components specific to each data matrix.
Suppose certain data points are overly contaminated, then the existing principal component analysis (PCA) methods are frequently incapable of filtering out and eliminating the excessively polluted ones, which potentially lead to the functional degeneration of the corresponding models. To tackle the issue, we propose a general framework namely robust weight learning with adaptive neighbors (RWL-AN), via which adaptive weight vector is automatically obtained with both robustness and sparse neighbors. More significantly, the degree of the sparsity is steerable such that only exact k well-fitting samples with least reconstruction errors are activated during the optimization, while the residual samples, i.e., the extreme noised ones are eliminated for the global robustness. Additionally, the framework is further applied to PCA problem to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed RWL-AN model. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.