Nearest Neighbor Methods


Implement K-Nearest Neighbors classification Algorithm

#artificialintelligence

I have written this post for the developers and assumes no background in statistics or mathematics. The focus is mainly on how the k-NN algorithm works and how to use it for predictive modeling problems. Classification of objects is an important area of research and application in a variety of fields. In the presence of full knowledge of the underlying probabilities, Bayes decision theory gives optimal error rates. In those cases where this information is not present, many algorithms make use of distance or similarity among samples as a means of classification.


Defending Against Adversarial Examples with K-Nearest Neighbor

#artificialintelligence

Robustness is an increasingly important property of machine learning models as they become more and more prevalent. We propose a defense against adversarial examples based on a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) on the intermediate activation of neural networks. With our models, the mean perturbation norm required to fool our MNIST model is 3.07 and 2.30 on CIFAR-10. Additionally, we propose a simple certifiable lower bound on the l2-norm of the adversarial perturbation using a more specific version of our scheme, a 1-NN on representations learned by a Lipschitz network. Our model provides a nontrivial average lower bound of the perturbation norm, comparable to other schemes on MNIST with similar clean accuracy.


Defending Against Adversarial Examples with K-Nearest Neighbor

#artificialintelligence

Robustness is an increasingly important property of machine learning models as they become more and more prevalent. We propose a defense against adversarial examples based on a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) on the intermediate activation of neural networks. With our models, the mean perturbation norm required to fool our MNIST model is 3.07 and 2.30 on CIFAR-10. Additionally, we propose a simple certifiable lower bound on the l2-norm of the adversarial perturbation using a more specific version of our scheme, a 1-NN on representations learned by a Lipschitz network. Our model provides a nontrivial average lower bound of the perturbation norm, comparable to other schemes on MNIST with similar clean accuracy.


Intrinsic dimension estimation for locally undersampled data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

High-dimensional data are ubiquitous in contemporary science and finding methods to compress them is one of the primary goals of machine learning. Given a dataset lying in a high-dimensional space (in principle hundreds to several thousands of dimensions), it is often useful to project it onto a lower-dimensional manifold, without loss of information. Identifying the minimal dimension of such manifold is a challenging problem known in the literature as intrinsic dimension estimation (IDE). Traditionally, most IDE algorithms are either based on multiscale principal component analysis (PCA) or on the notion of correlation dimension (and more in general on k-nearest-neighbors distances). These methods are affected, in different ways, by a severe curse of dimensionality. In particular, none of the existing algorithms can provide accurate ID estimates in the extreme locally undersampled regime, i.e. in the limit where the number of samples in any local patch of the manifold is less than (or of the same order of) the ID of the dataset. Here we introduce a new ID estimator that leverages on simple properties of the tangent space of a manifold to overcome these shortcomings. The method is based on the full correlation integral, going beyond the limit of small radius used for the estimation of the correlation dimension. Our estimator alleviates the extreme undersampling problem, intractable with other methods. Based on this insight, we explore a multiscale generalization of the algorithm. We show that it is capable of (i) identifying multiple dimensionalities in a dataset, and (ii) providing accurate estimates of the ID of extremely curved manifolds. In particular, we test the method on manifolds generated from global transformations of high-contrast images, relevant for invariant object recognition and considered a challenge for state-of-the-art ID estimators.


k-Nearest Neighbor Optimization via Randomized Hyperstructure Convex Hull

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In the k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN), the determination of classes for test instances is usually performed via a majority vote system, which may ignore the similarities among data. In this research, the researcher proposes an approach to fine-tune the selection of neighbors to be passed to the majority vote system through the construction of a random n-dimensional hyperstructure around the test instance by introducing a new threshold parameter. The accuracy of the proposed k-NN algorithm is 85.71%, while the accuracy of the conventional k-NN algorithm is 80.95% when performed on the Haberman's Cancer Survival dataset, and 94.44% for the proposed k-NN algorithm, compared to the conventional's 88.89% accuracy score on the Seeds dataset. The proposed k-NN algorithm is also on par with the conventional support vector machine algorithm accuracy, even on the Banknote Authentication and Iris datasets, even surpassing the accuracy of support vector machine on the Seeds dataset.


Deep Reinforcement Learning with Discrete Normalized Advantage Functions for Resource Management in Network Slicing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Network slicing promises to provision diversified services with distinct requirements in one infrastructure. Deep reinforcement learning (e.g., deep $\mathcal{Q}$-learning, DQL) is assumed to be an appropriate algorithm to solve the demand-aware inter-slice resource management issue in network slicing by regarding the varying demands and the allocated bandwidth as the environment state and the action, respectively. However, allocating bandwidth in a finer resolution usually implies larger action space, and unfortunately DQL fails to quickly converge in this case. In this paper, we introduce discrete normalized advantage functions (DNAF) into DQL, by separating the $\mathcal{Q}$-value function as a state-value function term and an advantage term and exploiting a deterministic policy gradient descent (DPGD) algorithm to avoid the unnecessary calculation of $\mathcal{Q}$-value for every state-action pair. Furthermore, as DPGD only works in continuous action space, we embed a k-nearest neighbor algorithm into DQL to quickly find a valid action in the discrete space nearest to the DPGD output. Finally, we verify the faster convergence of the DNAF-based DQL through extensive simulations.


An adaptive nearest neighbor rule for classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce a variant of the $k$-nearest neighbor classifier in which $k$ is chosen adaptively for each query, rather than supplied as a parameter. The choice of $k$ depends on properties of each neighborhood, and therefore may significantly vary between different points. (For example, the algorithm will use larger $k$ for predicting the labels of points in noisy regions.) We provide theory and experiments that demonstrate that the algorithm performs comparably to, and sometimes better than, $k$-NN with an optimal choice of $k$. In particular, we derive bounds on the convergence rates of our classifier that depend on a local quantity we call the `advantage' which is significantly weaker than the Lipschitz conditions used in previous convergence rate proofs. These generalization bounds hinge on a variant of the seminal Uniform Convergence Theorem due to Vapnik and Chervonenkis; this variant concerns conditional probabilities and may be of independent interest.


Introduction to Anomaly Detection using Machine Learning with a Case Study

#artificialintelligence

A common need when you are analyzing real-world data-sets is determining which data point stand out as being different to all others data points. Such data points are known as anomalies. This article was originally published on Medium by Davis David. In this article, you will learn a couple of Machine Learning-Based Approaches for Anomaly Detection and then show how to apply one of these approaches to solve a specific use case for anomaly detection (Credit Fraud detection) in part two. A common need when you analyzing real-world data-sets is determining which data point stand out as being different to all others data points.


Machine Learning: Building Recommender Systems

#artificialintelligence

The scikit-learnthe library has functions that enable us to build these pipelines by concatenating various modules together. We just need to specify the modules along with the corresponding parameters. It will then build a pipeline using these modules that processes the data and trains the system. The pipeline can include modules that perform various functions like feature selection, preprocessing, random forests, clustering, and so on. In this section, we will see how to build a pipeline to select the top K features from an input data point and then classify them using an Extremely Random Forest classifier.


Stochastic Optimization of Sorting Networks via Continuous Relaxations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Sorting input objects is an important step in many machine learning pipelines. However, the sorting operator is non-differentiable with respect to its inputs, which prohibits end-to-end gradient-based optimization. In this work, we propose NeuralSort, a general-purpose continuous relaxation of the output of the sorting operator from permutation matrices to the set of unimodal row-stochastic matrices, where every row sums to one and has a distinct arg max. This relaxation permits straight-through optimization of any computational graph involve a sorting operation. Further, we use this relaxation to enable gradient-based stochastic optimization over the combinatorially large space of permutations by deriving a reparameterized gradient estimator for the Plackett-Luce family of distributions over permutations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our framework on three tasks that require learning semantic orderings of high-dimensional objects, including a fully differentiable, parameterized extension of the k-nearest neighbors algorithm. Learning to automatically sort objects is useful in many machine learning applications, such as topk multi-class classification (Berrada et al., 2018), ranking documents for information retrieval (Liu et al., 2009), and multi-object target tracking in computer vision (Bar-Shalom & Li, 1995). Such algorithms typically require learning informative representations of complex, high-dimensional data, such as images, before sorting and subsequent downstream processing. For instance, the k-nearest neighbors image classification algorithm, which orders the neighbors based on distances in the canonical pixel basis, can be highly suboptimal for classification (Weinberger et al., 2006). Deep neural networks can instead be used to learn representations, but these representations cannot be optimized end-to-end for a downstream sorting-based objective, since the sorting operator is not differentiable with respect to its input. In this work, we seek to remedy this shortcoming by proposing NeuralSort, a continuous relaxation to the sorting operator that is differentiable almost everywhere with respect to the inputs. The output of any sorting algorithm can be viewed as a permutation matrix, which is a square matrix with entries in {0, 1} such that every row and every column sums to 1. Instead of a permutation matrix, NeuralSort returns a unimodal row-stochastic matrix. A unimodal row-stochastic matrix is defined as a square matrix with positive real entries, where each row sums to 1 and has a distinct arg max.