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Nearest Neighbor Methods


Dex-Net AR uses Apple's ARKit to train robots to grasp objects

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UC Berkeley AI researchers are using an iPhone X and Apple's ARKit to train a robotic arm how to grasp an object. ARKit creates point clouds from data generated by moving an RGB camera around an object for two minutes. Robotic grasping is a particular robotics subfield focused on the challenge of teaching a robot to pick up, move, manipulate, or grasp an object. The Dexterity Network, or Dex-Net, research project at UC Berkeley's Autolab dates back to 2017 and includes open source training data sets and pretrained models for robotic grasping in an ecommerce bin-picking scenario. The ability for robots to quickly learn how to grasp objects has a big impact on how automated warehouses like Amazon fulfillment centers can become.


On-Device Training with Core ML - Make Your Pancakes Healthy Again!

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Backing up the model The model stays on the device, which is great. They will lose the new version of the model unless we take care of that by sending it somewhere and later downloading it. Adding a new version of the model If the model stays and retrains on a device, what if we want to change it for a new model, let's say an improved one (not personalized)? If we do that, the user will also lose all the personalized parts of the model and will need to start from scratch. Usually we support those earlier versions too.


Types of Machine Learning : New Approach with Differences

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You guys are mostly familiar with the Trending word Machine Learning . Some of you also know the types of Machine Learning . So you must be wondering what value you will get in the article . See, We all know generally, There are 3 types of Machine Learning: Supervised, Unsupervised, reinforcement Learning . Some of us have also read about semi supervised learning as hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning .


Difference Between Algorithm and Model in Machine Learning

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Machine learning involves the use of machine learning algorithms and models. For beginners, this is very confusing as often "machine learning algorithm" is used interchangeably with "machine learning model." Are they the same thing or something different? As a developer, your intuition with "algorithms" like sort algorithms and search algorithms will help to clear up this confusion. In this post, you will discover the difference between machine learning "algorithms" and "models."


Introduction to KNN K-nearest neighbor algorithm using Examples

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Generalization through Memorization: Nearest Neighbor Language Models - Facebook Research

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We introduce kNN-LMs, which extend a pre-trained neural language model (LM) by linearly interpolating it with a k-nearest neighbors (kNN) model. The nearest neighbors are computed according to distance in the pre-trained LM embedding space, and can be drawn from any text collection, including the original LM training data. Applying this augmentation to a strong WIKITEXT-103 LM, with neighbors drawn from the original training set, our kNN-LM achieves a new state-of-the-art perplexity of 15.79 – a 2.9 point improvement with no additional training. We also show that this approach has implications for efficiently scaling up to larger training sets and allows for effective domain adaptation, by simply varying the nearest neighbor datastore, again without further training. Qualitatively, the model is particularly helpful in predicting rare patterns, such as factual knowledge.


Local Model Feature Transformations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Local learning methods are a popular class of machine learning algorithms. The basic idea for the entire cadre is to choose some non-local model family, to train many of them on small sections of neighboring data, and then to `stitch' the resulting models together in some way. Due to the limits of constraining a training dataset to a small neighborhood, research on locally-learned models has largely been restricted to simple model families. Also, since simple model families have no complex structure by design, this has limited use of the individual local models to predictive tasks. We hypothesize that, using a sufficiently complex local model family, various properties of the individual local models, such as their learned parameters, can be used as features for further learning. This dissertation improves upon the current state of research and works toward establishing this hypothesis by investigating algorithms for localization of more complex model families and by studying their applications beyond predictions as a feature extraction mechanism. We summarize this generic technique of using local models as a feature extraction step with the term ``local model feature transformations.'' In this document, we extend the local modeling paradigm to Gaussian processes, orthogonal quadric models and word embedding models, and extend the existing theory for localized linear classifiers. We then demonstrate applications of local model feature transformations to epileptic event classification from EEG readings, activity monitoring via chest accelerometry, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D point cloud segmentation, handwritten digit classification and event detection from Twitter feeds.


k-Nearest Neighbour Classifiers -- 2nd Edition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Perhaps the most straightforward classifier in the arsenal or machine learning techniques is the Nearest Neighbour Classifier -- classification is achieved by identifying the nearest neighbours to a query example and using those neighbours to determine the class of the query. This approach to classification is of particular importance because issues of poor run-time performance is not such a problem these days with the computational power that is available. This paper presents an overview of techniques for Nearest Neighbour classification focusing on; mechanisms for assessing similarity (distance), computational issues in identifying nearest neighbours and mechanisms for reducing the dimension of the data. This paper is the second edition of a paper previously published as a technical report. Sections on similarity measures for time-series, retrieval speed-up and intrinsic dimensionality have been added. An Appendix is included providing access to Python code for the key methods.


Multiclass Classification via Class-Weighted Nearest Neighbors

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Classification is a fundamental problem in statistics and machine learning that arises in many scientific and engineering problems. Scientific applications include identifying plant and animal species from body measurements, determining cancer types based on gene expression, and satellite image processing (Fisher, 1936, 1938; Khan et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2004); in modern engineering contexts, credit card fraud detection, handwritten digit recognition, word sense disambiguation, and object detection in images are all examples of classification tasks. These applications have brought two new challenges: multiclass classification with a potentially large number of classes and imbalanced data. For example, in online retailing, websites have hundreds of thousands or millions of products, and they may like to categorize these products within a preexisting taxonomy based on product descriptions (Lin et al., 2018). While the number of classes alone makes the problem difficult, an added difficulty with text data is that it is usually highly imbalanced, meaning that a few classes may constitute a large fraction of the data while many classes have only a few examples. In fact, Feldman (2019) notes that if the data follows the classical Zipf distribution for text data (Zipf, 1936), i.e., the class probabilities satisfy a power-law distribution, then up to 35% of seen examples may appear only once in the training data. Additionally, natural image data also seems to have the problems of many classes and imbalanced data (Salakhutdinov et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2014). Focusing on the problem of imbalanced data, researchers have found that a few heuristics help "do better," and the most principled and studied of these is weighting. There are a number of forms of weighting; we consider the most basic in which we incur a loss of weight for misclassifying an example of class and refer to this method as class-weighting.


Artificial Intelligence #3:kNN & Bayes Classification method

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This can be thought of as the training set for the algorithm, though no explicit training step is required.by Sobhan N. What you'll learn Use k Nearest Neighbor classification method to classify datasets. Write your own code to make k Nearest Neighbor classification method by yourself. Use k Nearest Neighbor classification method to classify IRIS dataset. Use Naive Bayes classification method to classify datasets.