Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is a main task of exploratory data mining, and a common technique for statistical data analysis, used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, bioinformatics, data compression, and computer graphics. (Wikipedia)
We've only seen Supervised learning algorithms in my prior articles. In this post, we will learn about K-means and begin with an example 2D dataset. Following that, we will apply the K-means algorithm to compress images by reducing the number of colors in a picture to only those that are common in that image. In Unsupervised learning, our algorithm will learn from unlabelled data instead from a labelled data. So, what is Unsupervised learning?
There are some cases when you have a dataset that is mostly unlabeled. The problems start when you want to structure the datasets and make it valuable by labeling it. In machine learning, there are various methods for labeling these datasets. Clustering is one of them. In this tutorial of "How to", you will learn to do K Means Clustering in Python.
Most of the time people start their machine learning journey with few basic techniques in which Unsupervised Learning, Supervised Learning, and Reinforcement Learning is the major ones. For any effective business operations, good use of information plays a vital role. However, at some point, the information goes beyond simple processing capacity. For that matter, machine learning plays its part. Before anything happens, information needs to be explored and certain processing needs to be done on it.
Mastering unsupervised learning opens up a broad range of avenues for a data scientist. There is so much scope in the vast expanse of unsupervised learning and yet a lot of beginners in machine learning tend to shy away from it. In fact, I'm sure most newcomers will stick to basic clustering algorithms like K-Means clustering and hierarchical clustering. While there's nothing wrong with that approach, it does limit what you can do when faced with clustering projects. And why limit yourself when you can expand your learning, knowledge, and skillset by learning the powerful DBSCAN clustering algorithm?
Knowledge graphs have emerged as a widely adopted medium for storing relational data, making methods for automatically reasoning with them highly desirable. In this paper, we present a novel approach for inducing a hierarchy of subject clusters, building upon our earlier work done in taxonomy induction. Our method first constructs a tag hierarchy before assigning subjects to clusters on this hierarchy. We quantitatively demonstrate our method's ability to induce a coherent cluster hierarchy on three real-world datasets.
We present a clustering- and demotion-based algorithm called Kmeans-FOLD to induce nonmonotonic logic programs from positive and negative examples. Our algorithm improves upon-and is inspired by-the FOLD algorithm. The FOLD algorithm itself is an improvement over the FOIL algorithm. Our algorithm generates a more concise logic program compared to the FOLD algorithm. Our algorithm uses the K-means based clustering method to cluster the input positive samples before applying the FOLD algorithm. Positive examples that are covered by the partially learned program in intermediate steps are not discarded as in the FOLD algorithm, rather they are demoted, i.e., their weights are reduced in subsequent iterations of the algorithm. Our experiments on the UCI dataset show that a combination of K-Means clustering and our demotion strategy produces significant improvement for datasets with more than one cluster of positive examples. The resulting induced program is also more concise and therefore easier to understand compared to the FOLD and ALEPH systems, two state of the art inductive logic programming (ILP) systems.
There is often a mixture of very frequent labels and very infrequent labels in multi-label datatsets. This variation in label frequency, a type class imbalance, creates a significant challenge for building efficient multi-label classification algorithms. In this paper, we tackle this problem by proposing a minority class oversampling scheme, UCLSO, which integrates Unsupervised Clustering and Label-Specific data Oversampling. Clustering is performed to find out the key distinct and locally connected regions of a multi-label dataset (irrespective of the label information). Next, for each label, we explore the distributions of minority points in the cluster sets. Only the minority points within a cluster are used to generate the synthetic minority points that are used for oversampling. Even though the cluster set is the same across all labels, the distributions of the synthetic minority points will vary across the labels. The training dataset is augmented with the set of label-specific synthetic minority points, and classifiers are trained to predict the relevance of each label independently. Experiments using 12 multi-label datasets and several multi-label algorithms show that the proposed method performed very well compared to the other competing algorithms.
Pool-based active learning (AL) aims to optimize the annotation process (i.e., labeling) as the acquisition of annotations is often time-consuming and therefore expensive. For this purpose, an AL strategy queries annotations intelligently from annotators to train a high-performance classification model at a low annotation cost. Traditional AL strategies operate in an idealized framework. They assume a single, omniscient annotator who never gets tired and charges uniformly regardless of query difficulty. However, in real-world applications, we often face human annotators, e.g., crowd or in-house workers, who make annotation mistakes and can be reluctant to respond if tired or faced with complex queries. Recently, a wide range of novel AL strategies has been proposed to address these issues. They differ in at least one of the following three central aspects from traditional AL: (1) They explicitly consider (multiple) human annotators whose performances can be affected by various factors, such as missing expertise. (2) They generalize the interaction with human annotators by considering different query and annotation types, such as asking an annotator for feedback on an inferred classification rule. (3) They take more complex cost schemes regarding annotations and misclassifications into account. This survey provides an overview of these AL strategies and refers to them as real-world AL. Therefore, we introduce a general real-world AL strategy as part of a learning cycle and use its elements, e.g., the query and annotator selection algorithm, to categorize about 60 real-world AL strategies. Finally, we outline possible directions for future research in the field of AL.
There are various cluster validity measures used for evaluating clustering results. One of the main objective of using these measures is to seek the optimal unknown number of clusters. Some measures work well for clusters with different densities, sizes and shapes. Yet, one of the weakness that those validity measures share is that they sometimes provide only one clear optimal number of clusters. That number is actually unknown and there might be more than one potential sub-optimal options that a user may wish to choose based on different applications. We develop two new cluster validity indices based on a correlation between an actual distance between a pair of data points and a centroid distance of clusters that the two points locate in. Our proposed indices constantly yield several peaks at different numbers of clusters which overcome the weakness previously stated. Furthermore, the introduced correlation can also be used for evaluating the quality of a selected clustering result. Several experiments in different scenarios including the well-known iris data set and a real-world marketing application have been conducted in order to compare the proposed validity indices with several well-known ones.
Several methods of triclustering of three dimensional data require the specification of the cluster size in each dimension. This introduces a certain degree of arbitrariness. To address this issue, we propose a new method, namely the multi-slice clustering (MSC) for a 3-order tensor data set. We analyse, in each dimension or tensor mode, the spectral decomposition of each tensor slice, i.e. a matrix. Thus, we define a similarity measure between matrix slices up to a threshold (precision) parameter, and from that, identify a cluster. The intersection of all partial clusters provides the desired triclustering. The effectiveness of our algorithm is shown on both synthetic and real-world data sets.