# Bayesian Learning

### What Is Probability?

Uncertainty involves making decisions with incomplete information, and this is the way we generally operate in the world. Handling uncertainty is typically described using everyday words like chance, luck, and risk. Probability is a field of mathematics that gives us the language and tools to quantify the uncertainty of events and reason in a principled manner. In this post, you will discover a gentle introduction to probability. Photo by Emma Jane Hogbin Westby, some rights reserved.

### Top 10 Machine Learning Algorithms For Beginners

To give you an example of the impact of machine learning, Man group's AHL Dimension programme is a \$5.1 billion dollar hedge fund which is partially managed by AI. After it started off, by the year 2015, its machine learning algorithms were contributing more than half of the profits of the fund even though the assets under its management were far less. After reading this blog, you would be able to understand the basic logic behind some popular and incredibly resourceful machine learning algorithms which have been used by the trading community as well as serve as the foundation stone on which you step on to create the best machine learning algorithm. Initially developed in statistics to study the relationship between input and output numerical variables, it was adopted by the machine learning community to make predictions based on the linear regression equation. The mathematical representation of linear regression is a linear equation that combines a specific set of input data (x) to predict the output value (y) for that set of input values.

### Top 10 Machine Learning Algorithms For Beginners

To give you an example of the impact of machine learning, Man group's AHL Dimension programme is a \$5.1 billion dollar hedge fund which is partially managed by AI. After it started off, by the year 2015, its machine learning algorithms were contributing more than half of the profits of the fund even though the assets under its management were far less. After reading this blog, you would be able to understand the basic logic behind some popular and incredibly resourceful machine learning algorithms which have been used by the trading community as well as serve as the foundation stone on which you step on to create the best machine learning algorithm. Initially developed in statistics to study the relationship between input and output numerical variables, it was adopted by the machine learning community to make predictions based on the linear regression equation. The mathematical representation of linear regression is a linear equation that combines a specific set of input data (x) to predict the output value (y) for that set of input values.

### A Gentle Introduction to Uncertainty in Machine Learning

Applied machine learning requires managing uncertainty. There are many sources of uncertainty in a machine learning project, including variance in the specific data values, the sample of data collected from the domain, and in the imperfect nature of any models developed from such data. Managing the uncertainty that is inherent in machine learning for predictive modeling can be achieved via the tools and techniques from probability, a field specifically designed to handle uncertainty. In this post, you will discover the challenge of uncertainty in machine learning. A Gentle Introduction to Uncertainty in Machine Learning Photo by Anastasiy Safari, some rights reserved.

### 5 Reasons to Learn Probability for Machine Learning

Probability is a field of mathematics that quantifies uncertainty. It is undeniably a pillar of the field of machine learning, and many recommend it as a prerequisite subject to study prior to getting started. This is misleading advice, as probability makes more sense to a practitioner once they have the context of the applied machine learning process in which to interpret it. In this post, you will discover why machine learning practitioners should study probabilities to improve their skills and capabilities. Before we go through the reasons that you should learn probability, let's start off by taking a small look at the reason why you should not.

### Microsoft weeds out fake marketing leads with Naïve Bayes and Machine Learning Server

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### Reinforcement Learning, Bayesian Statistics, and Tensorflow Probability: a child's game - Part 2

In the first part, we explored how Bayesian Statistics might be used to make reinforcement learning less data-hungry. Now we execute this idea in a simple example, using Tensorflow Probability to implement our model. When it comes to games, it is difficult to imagine something simpler than rock, paper, scissors. Despite the simplicity, googling the game reveals a remarkable body of literature. We want to use Bayesian Statistics to play this game and exploit the biases of a human opponent.

### Resources for Getting Started With Probability in Machine Learning

Machine Learning is a field of computer science concerned with developing systems that can learn from data. Like statistics and linear algebra, probability is another foundational field that supports machine learning. Probability is a field of mathematics concerned with quantifying uncertainty. Many aspects of machine learning are uncertain, including, most critically, observations from the problem domain and the relationships learned by models from that data. As such, some understanding of probability and tools and methods used in the field are required by a machine learning practitioner to be effective.

### Consequences of Model Misspecification for Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Missing Data

Researchers are often faced with the challenge of developing statistical models with incomplete data. Exacerbating this situation is the possibility that either the researcher's complete-data model or the model of the missing-data mechanism is misspecified. In this article, we create a formal theoretical framework for developing statistical models and detecting model misspecification in the presence of incomplete data where maximum likelihood estimates are obtained by maximizing the observable-data likelihood function when the missing-data mechanism is assumed ignorable. First, we provide sufficient regularity conditions on the researcher's complete-data model to characterize the asymptotic behavior of maximum likelihood estimates in the simultaneous presence of both missing data and model misspecification. These results are then used to derive robust hypothesis testing methods for possibly misspecified models in the presence of Missing at Random (MAR) or Missing Not at Random (MNAR) missing data.

### @Bayes' Theorem For Bae

Bayes' Theorem is something that confuses and frustrates many, but is not as awful as many make it out to be. While the formula for "Bae's Theorem" given in the graphic above is silly, doesn't make mathematical sense, and borders on being NSFW, it does help illustrate what the problem statement is (something that throws many, as intuitively it seems kind of backwards). Given that Netflix is occurring, one would want to know the probability of'chill', NOT the other way around. Granted, the right side of the equation is complete nonsense, but the left-side is actually a good mnemonic device, especially given that part of the reason so many students tune-out while learning mathematics is due to the dry sterility of the presentation. The theorem essentially states that: the probability of event A given event B is equal to the probability of B given event A times the probability of event A divided by the probability of B. Which seems very complex without breaking it down bit by bit.