A picture of British mathematician Alan Turing hangs behind one of his notebooks during an auction preview in 2015. Turing argued that the ultimate test of a computer's intelligence was whether it could communicate with a human in a way indistinguishable from another human mind. Increasingly, AI-generated writing is making researchers think again about what the test really means. Jacob Berkowitz is a writer in Almonte, Ont., the founder of Quantum Writing and a writer-in-virtual-residence at University of Ottawa's Institute for Science, Society and Policy. I remember, clearly, my son's first word.
And as AI programs gets better and better at acting like humans, we will increasingly be faced with the question of whether there's really anything that special about our own intelligence, or if we are just machines of a different kind. Could everything we know and do one day be reproduced by a complicated enough computer program installed in a complicated enough robot? In 1950, computer pioneer and wartime codebreaker Alan Turing made one of the most influential attempts to tackle this issue. In a landmark paper, he suggested that the vagueness could be taken out of the question of human and machine intelligence with a simple test. This "Turing Test" assesses the ability of a computer to mimic a human, as judged by another human who could not see the machine but could ask it written questions.
Artificial Intelligence is the discipline of computer sciences that is responsible for planning, creating and developing computer systems that have characteristics associated with human behavior. For this reason, millions of people around the world are curious about it, so in this article we answer the most asked questions about this science. This means from our previous definition, that a computer will simulate both human behavior and its biological processes, as it happens in the field of androids robotics and drones and the facial recognition systems presents in smartphones made with artificial neural network algorithms. Although many scientists have contributed to knowledge in this discipline, the British Alan Turing is recognized as the father of Artificial Intelligence, because in 1950 he published an article called: Computing machinery and intelligence, where he explains that if a machine can imitate the behavior of beings humans, then it could be classified as intelligent. In this publication he proposed a test called: Turing Test, which consisted of having a person in one room and a computer in another, to then establish a communication, if in the middle of the conversation that person could not distinguish if he was communicating with a Machine or another person, one could say that this machine was intelligent.
This weekend Steve Worswick will be pushing the boundaries of what it is to be human, attempting to fool a panel of judges into thinking they are chatting to another person while really they will be talking to a chatbot. But Steve isn't an engineer at Apple or Amazon, he is a designer from Leeds and the AI he is hoping will pass the test - Mitsuku - is one you have probably never heard of. The competition he is taking part in, the Loebner Prize, is one of the only real-world Turing Tests but is also relatively obscure in the highly-hyped world of artificial intelligence - and not without controversy. This year could be the last time Steve competes - the sponsor Hugh Loebner, a millionaire inventor who made his fortune from brass fittings, died in 2016 so there is no longer funding for the prize. The competition sees four judges conducting a series of conversations with both humans and bots which they then score out of 100.
Our idea is to evaluate each area step by step. As long as each feature is designed to look like it is part of the same body (same gender, age and so on), then if an eye and mouth can individually pass the test then they should also pass it together. This would allow a robot builder to assess progress as they go to ensure each body part is indistinguishable from a that of human and to prevent ending up with something that falls into the uncanny valley.
Machine learning can now emulate human behavior, thought processes, and strategies, to the point of human indistinguishability between humans and machines in certain contexts. Google's Duplex system makes reservations by conversing with humans over the phone. Here, learning algorithms captured subtle artifacts of spoken English to replicate human artifacts such as hesitations or pauses, thereby generating speech that is very conversational and lifelike. In another domain, Christie's announced this past summer that it was the first auction house to sell art generated by a neural network. This questions the necessary involvement of human forms of creativity as a prerequisite to producing art that is enjoyable to humans.
Are you familiar with the Turing Test? For the uninitiated, the Turing Test was developed by Alan Turing, the original computer nerd, in 1950. The idea is simple: for a machine to pass the Turing Test, it must exhibit intelligent behavior indistinguishable from that of a human being. The test is usually conceptualized with one person--the interrogator--speaking through a computerized interface with two different entities, hidden from view. One is an actual computer, one is a human being.
The Turing Test, named for Alan Turing, the English computer scientist and subject of the movie The Imitation Game, is a method for determining whether a computer is capable of thinking like a human being. To pass the test, interactions with the computer must be indistinguishable from that with a human in how an AI "acts, reacts, and interacts like a sentient being". AI will certainly become more human as it evolves, and this raises questions without simple answers. Does passing a Turing test indicate sentience? Can an AI be considered another "living" species?
If you read high-profile medical journals, the high-end popular press, and magazines like Science or Nature, it is clear that the medicalization of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and big data is in full swing. Speculation abounds about what these can do for medicine. It's time to put them to the test. From what I can tell, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and big data are mostly jargon for one of two things. The first is about bigger and bigger computers sifting through mountains of data to detect patterns that might be obscure to even the best trained and most skilled humans.
Our lives are already enhanced by AI – or at least an AI in its infancy – with technologies using algorithms that help them to learn from our behaviour. As AI grows up and starts to think, not just to learn, we ask how human-like do we want their intelligence to be and what impact will machines have on our jobs? We are well on the way to a world in which many aspects of our daily lives will depend on AI systems. Within a decade, machines might diagnose patients with the learned expertise of not just one doctor but thousands. They might make judiciary recommendations based on vast datasets of legal decisions and complex regulations.