Goto

Collaborating Authors

History


21 Most Popular Artificial Intelligence Questions Answered

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence sets the stage for a new era of solutions to be made with computers. It allows us to solve problems that we could not have imagined in the past. To clear up some of the confusion I decided to make this video where I answer the most popular AI questions. The ideas about Artificial Intelligence evolved through centuries, starting with greek myths about Intelligent robots (Talos myth), but AI as we know it today only emerged in 1955. The term was coined by Alan Turing, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, Herber A.Simon, and John McCarthy.


I.--COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE

#artificialintelligence

I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms'machine' and'think'. The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous. If the meaning of the words'machine' and'think' are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to the question, 'Can machines think?' is to be sought in a statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. Instead of attempting such a definition I shall replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words. The new form of the problem can be described in terms of a game which we call the'imitation game'. It is played with three people, a man (A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart from the other two. The object of the ...


How WWII Was Won, and Why CS Students Feel Unappreciated

Communications of the ACM

Observations of the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe (May 8, 1945) included remembrances of such searing events as the struggle on Omaha Beach on D-Day, the Battle of the Bulge, and at least some recognition of the enormous contribution made by the Russian people to the defeat of Fascism. Yet in all this, I suspect the role of the first "high-performance computing" capabilities of the Allies--known as Ultra in Britain, Magic in the U.S.--will receive too little attention. The truth of the matter is that the ability to hack into Axis communications made possible many Allied successes in the field, at sea, and in the air. Alan Turing and other "boffins" at Britain's Bletchley Park facility built the machine--a much-improved version of a prototype developed by the Poles in the interwar period--that had sufficient computing power to break the German Enigma encoding system developed by Arthur Scherbius. The Enigma machine was a typewriter-like device with three rotors, each with an alphabet of its own, so each keystroke could create 17,576 possible meanings (26 x 26 x 26).


Rare and hardest to crack Enigma code machine sells for $437,000

ZDNet

A rare 1944 four-rotor M4 Enigma cipher machine, considered one of the hardest challenges for the Allies to decrypt, has sold at a Christie's auction for £347,250 ($437,955). The winning bid for the electromechanical cipher machine was just above the top estimate of £300,000 expected at the auction. As noted by Christie's, the M4 Enigma has a special place in computing history as the Allied efforts to break its encryption led to the development of the first programmable computer, the one developed at Bletchley Park that was used to secretly break the M4, giving Allied forces visibility into German naval planning during the Battle of the Atlantic until its surrender in mid-1945. The M4 Enigmas are considered rare because they were made in smaller numbers than three-rotor machines. After Germany capitulated, the country ordered troops to destroy remaining Enigmas in order to keep them from Allied forces.


Ingraham tells voters to 'learn to spot lies' from Democrats, prevent 'Orwellian chasm' of Biden presidency

FOX News

With the rise of the hard left in America, we should keep George Orwell's warning in mind and learn to spot lies that are made to sound truthful. Laura Ingraham opened Thursday's show with a monologue meant to help viewers "decode" the language used by Democrats to assuage voters who might otherwise be skeptical or fearful of a Joe Biden presidency. The "Ingraham Angle" host began by quoting George Orwell's classic 1946 essay, "Politics and the English Language," in which he wrote that "political language ... is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind." "At the time, George Orwell was writing about the rise of communism and far-left thought," Ingraham said. "Today with the rise of the hard left in America, we should keep Orwell's warnings in mind and learn to spot lies that are made to sound truthful during this pivotal time," she said.


A student has rebuilt the machine that first cracked German Enigma codes

ZDNet

A masters' student at the University of Cambridge, Hal Evans, has successfully built the first fully functioning replica of a cyclometer – a machine built in the early 1930s by Polish mathematicians to help decipher secret messages sent by the Germans via Enigma machines. About the same size as a very big laptop, but much heavier, with ten-kilograms worth of wires, switches and rotors, the 21st century version of the cyclometer is currently sitting in the living room of Evans' tutor Tim Flack, a lecturer in electrical engineering at the University of Cambridge, who is carrying out some lockdown research on it. Just like the original, Evans' cyclometer can build a giant catalog of all the potential ways that plain text could have been translated into Enigma cipher text by the Germans' technology. The machine semi-automates the process of identifying and cataloging the outcomes of every possible piece of Enigma code produced in the early days of the German protocol. As he demonstrated how the machine works over Zoom, Flack explained that the cyclometer was an early example of cryptographic genius, and that it played a huge role in Alan Turing's development of the Bombe, which was used to crack the German Enigma code during the Second World War.


AI for Automotive Strategy

#artificialintelligence

A lot has been written, said and discussed in the domain of Artificial Intelligence. From the Turing test conducted by Alan Turing in 1950 which offered an opportunity to understand whether machines can exhibit intelligent behavior to AutoML (Auto machine learning) by google which claims to reduce the dependency on humans to build AI models, the technology has come a long way. However, the question that still intrigues many is whether this new wave of digital intelligence is intelligent enough to create value. This is one of the biggest challenges C-level executives in the manufacturing industry face when they propagate the idea of investing in this technology. Preparing a business case and binding the investment to the RoI, in an asset-heavy industry, becomes a daunting task and many at times hinder the buy-in or progress of such programs across the manufacturing enterprise.


What's Really Orwellian About Our Global Black Lives Matter Moment

Slate

Black Lives Matter is reverberating around the world, triggering a fresh reckoning with the racist global history of colonialism and slavery. While Confederate statues began to tumble across the American South, in Bristol, England, a diverse group felled a statue of a slave trader that has long provoked offense. Statues of colonial conquerors of Africa and South Asia have followed, along with a robust discussion of the ways in which such actions make history rather than erase it. These movements abroad are not merely echoes of BLM; BLM itself is global. The shared impetus is a common opposition to racism, of which anti-Black racism has been the most lethal and traumatic.


A History Of Artificial Intelligence -- From the Beginning

#artificialintelligence

In the seminal paper on AI, titled Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Alan Turing famously asked: "Can machines think?" -- or, more accurately, can machines successfully imitate thought? Turing clarifies that he's interested in machines that "are intended to carry out any operations which could be done by a human computer." In other words, he's interested in complex digital machines. Since the achievement of a thinking digital machine is a matter of the evolution of machines, it reasons to start at the beginning of machine history. A machine is a device that does work.


Alan Turing's enduring legacy: 10 ideas beyond Enigma

ZDNet

There is nothing remarkable about mathematicians' achievements going unrecognised in a wider world changed by their discoveries. The hidden history of Alan Turing is just a particularly bizarre example -- one we can expect to become much better known during the 2012 centenary of his birth. We are republishing it in honor of Alan Turing's birthday.) But for many of us the peculiar resonance between the personal and the scientific makes Turing specially iconic. And the visionary form this interaction took gives Turing's writings a relevance and impact which continues to this day.