In Go, no successful evaluation function for non-terminal positions has ever been found. Therefore, it is not a problem that will be solved with faster search. It pushes the boundaries of what is possible with new algorithms such as Monte Carlo methods. Work on computer Go started in the 1960's, but it was not until 2016 that the AlphaGo program was able to best the second-highest ranking professional Go player.
And then, around 2012, mostly due to the advance of computing power within graphic cards, which enable programmers to make massively parallel linear algebra, we had a number of breakthroughs which now mean that computers have become better than humans at pattern recognition. But then came a new technology called'convolutional neural networks', around 2011, which showed incredibly accurate results: error rates lower than 1%. The ones that Tim showed IBM Watson Work Service's natural language processing. One of the fascinating developments of last year was the perfecting of Google Deep Mind's system to such a point that it could beat Lee Sedol, one of the best Go players in the world.
When I read today's news about OpenAI's DotA 2 bot beating human players at The International, an eSports tournament with a prize pool of over $24M, I was jumping with excitement. These games require long-term strategic decision making, multiplayer cooperation, and have significantly more complex state and action spaces than Chess, Go, or Atari, all of which have been "solved" by AI techniques over the past decades. Given that 1v1 is mostly a game of mechanical skill, it is not surprising that a bot beats human players. And given the severely restricted environment, the artificially restricted set of possible actions, and that there was little to no need for long-term planning or coordination, I come to the conclusion that this problem was actually significantly easier than beating a human champion in the game of Go.
In the particular case of the Facebook negotiation chat bot, you give it examples of negotiation dialogs with the whole situation properly annotated -- what the initial state was, the preferences of the negotiator, what was said, what the result was, etc. The program analyzes all these examples, extracts some features of each dialog, and assigns a number to these features, representing how often dialogs with that feature ended in positive results for the negotiator. AlphaGo started learning from real games played by real people. The original training data set was in English, but the extracted features were just words and phrases, and the robot was just putting them together based on the numerical representation of how likely they were going to help get the desired outcome.
The research lab has teamed up with video game company Blizzard Entertainment to open StarCraft II as an AI research environment the firms hope will give insight into the most complex problems related to artificial intelligence. Google's DeepMind research lab has teamed up with video game company Blizzard Entertainment to open StarCraft II as an AI research environment the firms hope will give insight into the most complex problems related to artificial intelligence DeepMind has tackled games like Atari Breakout, but StarCraft II presents new challenges in how it contains multiple layers and sub-goals. Similarly, DeepMind's AlphaGo agent learned strategies for playing the ancient Chinese board game Go – beating human champion Lee Sedol in a man vs machine challenge this year. Gameplay involves a complex mix of skill and strategy, as players mine resources to pay for structures and military units as they explore an unknown map.
Ottawa-based Artificial Intelligence (AI) Software Companies Land Major Investments In May of this year Google's AlphaGo A.I. Canada has been recognized as a global leader of artificial intelligence; in June, the highly coveted business magazine company, Forbes, published an article validating the AI revolution happening in Canada. In the last two years, AI and machine learning job openings have risen to almost 500% percent, of which 5% are future careers in the capital. Two local companies, and Invest Ottawa clients, leading growth in the field of AI are: Contextere and MindBridge.
AlphaGo first drew headlines last year when it beat former Go world champion Lee Sedol, and the China event took things to the next level with matches against 19-year-old Jie, and doubles with and against other top Go pros. For that reason, the Future of Go Summit is our final match event with AlphaGo. DeepMind is planning to publish a final review paper on how the AI developed since its matches with Lee Sedol last year. Top players, even Ke Jie himself, studied up on AlphaGo's moves and added some to their arsenal.
It was billed as a battle of human intelligence versus artificial intelligence, man versus machine. Just over a month ago, a Google computer program named AlphaGo competed against 19-year-old Chinese prodigy Ke Jie, the top-ranked player of what is believed to be the world's most sophisticated board game, Go. I see this as a remarkable example of emotional intelligence (EI), the ability to make emotions work for you instead of against you. It's about cultivating a mindset of continuous growth, continuing the journey of self-improvement.