Problem Solving

Knowledge Engineering


Knowledge engineering is the process of creating rules that apply to data in order to imitate the way a human thinks and approaches problems. A task and its solution are broken down to their structure, and based on that information, AI determines how the solution was reached. Often, a library of problem-solving methods and knowledge to solve a particular set of problems is fed into a system as raw data. Then, the system can diagnose the problem and find the solution without further human input. The result can be used as a self-help troubleshooting software, or as a support module to a human agent.

Effective problem solving using SAT solvers Artificial Intelligence

In this article we demonstrate how to solve a variety of problems and puzzles using the built-in SAT solver of the computer algebra system Maple. Once the problems have been encoded into Boolean logic, solutions can be found (or shown to not exist) automatically, without the need to implement any search algorithm. In particular, we describe how to solve the $n$-queens problem, how to generate and solve Sudoku puzzles, how to solve logic puzzles like the Einstein riddle, how to solve the 15-puzzle, how to solve the maximum clique problem, and finding Graeco-Latin squares.

Cognitive Knowledge Graph Reasoning for One-shot Relational Learning Machine Learning

Inferring new facts from existing knowledge graphs (KG) with explainable reasoning processes is a significant problem and has received much attention recently. However, few studies have focused on relation types unseen in the original KG, given only one or a few instances for training. To bridge this gap, we propose CogKR for one-shot KG reasoning. The one-shot relational learning problem is tackled through two modules: the summary module summarizes the underlying relationship of the given instances, based on which the reasoning module infers the correct answers. Motivated by the dual process theory in cognitive science, in the reasoning module, a cognitive graph is built by iteratively coordinating retrieval (System 1, collecting relevant evidence intuitively) and reasoning (System 2, conducting relational reasoning over collected information). The structural information offered by the cognitive graph enables our model to aggregate pieces of evidence from multiple reasoning paths and explain the reasoning process graphically. Experiments show that CogKR substantially outperforms previous state-of-the-art models on one-shot KG reasoning benchmarks, with relative improvements of 24.3%-29.7% on MRR. The source code is available at

Sub-Goal Trees -- a Framework for Goal-Directed Trajectory Prediction and Optimization Artificial Intelligence

Many AI problems, in robotics and other domains, are goal-directed, essentially seeking a trajectory leading to some goal state. In such problems, the way we choose to represent a trajectory underlies algorithms for trajectory prediction and optimization. Interestingly, most all prior work in imitation and reinforcement learning builds on a sequential trajectory representation -- calculating the next state in the trajectory given its predecessors. We propose a different perspective: a goal-conditioned trajectory can be represented by first selecting an intermediate state between start and goal, partitioning the trajectory into two. Then, recursively, predicting intermediate points on each sub-segment, until a complete trajectory is obtained. We call this representation a sub-goal tree, and building on it, we develop new methods for trajectory prediction, learning, and optimization. We show that in a supervised learning setting, sub-goal trees better account for trajectory variability, and can predict trajectories exponentially faster at test time by leveraging a concurrent computation. Then, for optimization, we derive a new dynamic programming equation for sub-goal trees, and use it to develop new planning and reinforcement learning algorithms. These algorithms, which are not based on the standard Bellman equation, naturally account for hierarchical sub-goal structure in a task. Empirical results on motion planning domains show that the sub-goal tree framework significantly improves both accuracy and prediction time.

CoAPI: An Efficient Two-Phase Algorithm Using Core-Guided Over-Approximate Cover for Prime Compilation of Non-Clausal Formulae Artificial Intelligence

Prime compilation, i.e., the generation of all prime implicates or implicants (primes for short) of formulae, is a prominent fundamental issue for AI. Recently, the prime compilation for non-clausal formulae has received great attention. The state-of-the-art approaches generate all primes along with a prime cover constructed by prime implicates using dual rail encoding. However, the dual rail encoding potentially expands search space. In addition, constructing a prime cover, which is necessary for their methods, is time-consuming. To address these issues, we propose a novel two-phase method -- CoAPI. The two phases are the key to construct a cover without using dual rail encoding. Specifically, given a non-clausal formula, we first propose a core-guided method to rewrite the non-clausal formula into a cover constructed by over-approximate implicates in the first phase. Then, we generate all the primes based on the cover in the second phase. In order to reduce the size of the cover, we provide a multi-order based shrinking method, with a good tradeoff between the small size and efficiency, to compress the size of cover considerably. The experimental results show that CoAPI outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. Particularly, for generating all prime implicates, CoAPI consumes about one order of magnitude less time.

Top AI Books for Summer Reading in 2019 - AI Trends


The recommended AI books on the list of published by MarkTechPost is selected on the basis of their reviews on Amazon, social media influence, popularity and online mentions in AI domains. This is not meant to be a ranking. A Modern Approach, 3e offers the most comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to the theory and practice of artificial intelligence. Number one in its field, this textbook is ideal for one or two-semester, undergraduate or graduate-level courses in Artificial Intelligence. In this mind-expanding book, scientific pioneer Marvin Minsky continues his groundbreaking research, offering a fascinating new model for how our minds work.

Adaptive Learning Material Recommendation in Online Language Education Artificial Intelligence

Recommending personalized learning materials for online language learning is challenging because we typically lack data about the student's ability and the relative difficulty of learning materials. This makes it hard to recommend appropriate content that matches the student's prior knowledge. In this paper, we propose a refined hierarchical knowledge structure to model vocabulary knowledge, which enables us to automatically organize the authentic and up-to-date learning materials collected from the internet. Based on this knowledge structure, we then introduce a hybrid approach to recommend learning materials that adapts to a student's language level. We evaluate our work with an online Japanese learning tool and the results suggest adding adaptivity into material recommendation significantly increases student engagement.

A Learning based Branch and Bound for Maximum Common Subgraph Problems Machine Learning

Branch-and-bound (BnB) algorithms are widely used to solve combinatorial problems, and the performance crucially depends on its branching heuristic.In this work, we consider a typical problem of maximum common subgraph (MCS), and propose a branching heuristic inspired from reinforcement learning with a goal of reaching a tree leaf as early as possible to greatly reduce the search tree size.Extensive experiments show that our method is beneficial and outperforms current best BnB algorithm for the MCS.

Neural-Symbolic Computing: An Effective Methodology for Principled Integration of Machine Learning and Reasoning


Current advances in Artificial Intelligence and machine learning in general, and deep learning in particular have reached unprecedented impact not only across research communities, but also over popular media channels. However, concerns about interpretability and accountability of AI have been raised by influential thinkers. In spite of the recent impact of AI, several works have identified the need for principled knowledge representation and reasoning mechanisms integrated with deep learning-based systems to provide sound and explainable models for such systems. Neural-symbolic computing aims at integrating, as foreseen by Valiant, two most fundamental cognitive abilities: the ability to learn from the environment, and the ability to reason from what has been learned. Neural-symbolic computing has been an active topic of research for many years, reconciling the advantages of robust learning in neural networks and reasoning and interpretability of symbolic representation.

Semantic Search using Spreading Activation based on Ontology Artificial Intelligence

Currently, the text document retrieval systems have many challenges in exploring the semantics of queries and documents. Each query implies information which does not appear in the query but the documents related with the information are also expected by user. The disadvantage of the previous spreading activation algorithms could be many irrelevant concepts added to the query. In this paper, a proposed novel algorithm is only activate and add to the query named entities which are related with original entities in the query and explicit relations in the query.