Health Care Technology


Deconvolution of High Dimensional Mixtures via Boosting, with Application to Diffusion-Weighted MRI of Human Brain

Neural Information Processing Systems

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and fiber tractography are the only methods to measure the structure of the white matter in the living human brain. The diffusion signal has been modelled as the combined contribution from many individual fascicles of nerve fibers passing through each location in the white matter. Typically, this is done via basis pursuit, but estimation of the exact directions is limited due to discretization. The difficulties inherent in modeling DWI data are shared by many other problems involving fitting non-parametric mixture models. Ekanadaham et al. proposed an approach, continuous basis pursuit, to overcome discretization error in the 1-dimensional case (e.g., spike-sorting).


Amazon Uses ML to Transcribe Medical Speech

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Medical applications are emerging as an attractive market for AI developers pitching machine learning solutions that also meet strict regulatory requirements for protecting patient privacy. This week, for example, Nvidia (NASDAQ: NVDA) added a secure learning tool to its Clara AI platform aimed at medical imaging. Amazon followed with a speech recognition system that allows developers to add transcription services to medical apps. Along with eligibility under HIPAA, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, the service known as Amazon Transcribe Medical also responds to an electronic health records law called the HITECH Act. The 2009 law requires physicians to provide detailed data entries in patient records.


Forecasting Treatment Responses Over Time Using Recurrent Marginal Structural Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

Electronic health records provide a rich source of data for machine learning methods to learn dynamic treatment responses over time. However, any direct estimation is hampered by the presence of time-dependent confounding, where actions taken are dependent on time-varying variables related to the outcome of interest. Drawing inspiration from marginal structural models, a class of methods in epidemiology which use propensity weighting to adjust for time-dependent confounders, we introduce the Recurrent Marginal Structural Network - a sequence-to-sequence architecture for forecasting a patient's expected response to a series of planned treatments. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


Speeding up Permutation Testing in Neuroimaging

Neural Information Processing Systems

Multiple hypothesis testing is a significant problem in nearly all neuroimaging studies. In order to correct for this phenomena, we require a reliable estimate of the Family-Wise Error Rate (FWER). The well known Bonferroni correction method, while being simple to implement, is quite conservative, and can substantially under-power a study because it ignores dependencies between test statistics. Permutation testing, on the other hand, is an exact, non parametric method of estimating the FWER for a given α threshold, but for acceptably low thresholds the computational burden can be prohibitive. In this paper, we observe that permutation testing in fact amounts to populating the columns of a very large matrix P. By analyzing the spectrum of this matrix, under certain conditions, we see that P has a low-rank plus a low-variance residual decomposition which makes it suitable for highly sub–sampled -- on the order of 0.5% -- matrix completion methods.


From voxels to pixels and back: Self-supervision in natural-image reconstruction from fMRI

Neural Information Processing Systems

Reconstructing observed images from fMRI brain recordings is challenging. Unfortunately, acquiring sufficient ''labeled'' pairs of {Image, fMRI} (i.e., images with their corresponding fMRI responses) to span the huge space of natural images is prohibitive for many reasons. We present a novel approach which, in addition to the scarce labeled data (training pairs), allows to train fMRI-to-image reconstruction networks also on "unlabeled" data (i.e., images without fMRI recording, and fMRI recording without images). The proposed model utilizes both an Encoder network (image-to-fMRI) and a Decoder network (fMRI-to-image). Concatenating these two networks back-to-back (Encoder-Decoder & Decoder-Encoder) allows augmenting the training data with both types of unlabeled data.


Incorporating Context into Language Encoding Models for fMRI

Neural Information Processing Systems

Language encoding models help explain language processing in the human brain by learning functions that predict brain responses from the language stimuli that elicited them. Current word embedding-based approaches treat each stimulus word independently and thus ignore the influence of context on language understanding. In this work we instead build encoding models using rich contextual representations derived from an LSTM language model. Our models show a significant improvement in encoding performance relative to state-of-the-art embeddings in nearly every brain area. By varying the amount of context used in the models and providing the models with distorted context, we show that this improvement is due to a combination of better word embeddings learned by the LSTM language model and contextual information.


Robust Multimodal Graph Matching: Sparse Coding Meets Graph Matching

Neural Information Processing Systems

Graph matching is a challenging problem with very important applications in a wide range of fields, from image and video analysis to biological and biomedical problems. We propose a robust graph matching algorithm inspired in sparsity-related techniques. We cast the problem, resembling group or collaborative sparsity formulations, as a non-smooth convex optimization problem that can be efficiently solved using augmented Lagrangian techniques. The method can deal with weighted or unweighted graphs, as well as multimodal data, where different graphs represent different types of data. The proposed approach is also naturally integrated with collaborative graph inference techniques, solving general network inference problems where the observed variables, possibly coming from different modalities, are not in correspondence.


Time-dependent spatially varying graphical models, with application to brain fMRI data analysis

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this work, we present an additive model for space-time data that splits the data into a temporally correlated component and a spatially correlated component. Under assumptions on the smoothness of changes in covariance matrices, we derive strong single sample convergence results, confirming our ability to estimate meaningful graphical structures as they evolve over time. We apply our methodology to the discovery of time-varying spatial structures in human brain fMRI signals. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


On Prior Distributions and Approximate Inference for Structured Variables

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a general framework for constructing prior distributions with structured variables. The prior is defined as the information projection of a base distribution onto distributions supported on the constraint set of interest. In cases where this projection is intractable, we propose a family of parameterized approximations indexed by subsets of the domain. We further analyze the special case of sparse structure. While the optimal prior is intractable in general, we show that approximate inference using convex subsets is tractable, and is equivalent to maximizing a submodular function subject to cardinality constraints.


A state-space model for inferring effective connectivity of latent neural dynamics from simultaneous EEG/fMRI

Neural Information Processing Systems

Inferring effective connectivity between spatially segregated brain regions is important for understanding human brain dynamics in health and disease. Non-invasive neuroimaging modalities, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are often used to make measurements and infer connectivity. However most studies do not consider integrating the two modalities even though each is an indirect measure of the latent neural dynamics and each has its own spatial and/or temporal limitations. In this study, we develop a linear state-space model to infer the effective connectivity in a distributed brain network based on simultaneously recorded EEG and fMRI data. Our method first identifies task-dependent and subject-dependent regions of interest (ROI) based on the analysis of fMRI data.