Education


Understanding overfitting: an inaccurate meme in Machine Learning

@machinelearnbot

Applying cross-validation prevents overfitting and a good out-of-sample performance, low generalisation error in unseen data, indicates not an overfit. Aim In this post, we will give an intuition on why model validation as approximating generalization error of a model fit and detection of overfitting can not be resolved simultaneously on a single model. Let's use the following functional form, from classic text of Bishop, but with an added Gaussian noise We generate large enough set, 100 points to avoid sample size issue discussed in Bishop's book, see Figure 2. Overtraining is not overfitting Overtraining means a model performance degrades in learning model parameters against an objective variable that effects how model is build, for example, an objective variable can be a training data size or iteration cycle in neural network.


Machine Learning using Advanced Algorithms and Visualization

@machinelearnbot

Machine learning is the subfield of computer science that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. Then, we'll walk you through the next example on letter recognition, where you will train a program to recognize letters using a support Vector machine, examine the results, and plot a confusion matrix. Tim Hoolihan currently works at DialogTech, a marketing analytics company focused on conversations. He is the Senior Director of Data Science there.


IBM, JDRF partnership using machine learning methods to tackle Type 1 diabetes

#artificialintelligence

What the research collaboration will attempt to do is create an entry point in the field of precision medicine -- combining JDRF's connections to research teams around the globe, and its subject matter expertise in T1D research, with the technical capability and computing power of IBM. IBM scientists will look across at least three different data sets and apply machine learning algorithms to help find patterns and factors that may be at play, with the goal of identifying ways that could delay or prevent T1D in children. As a result, JDRF will be in a better position to identify the top predictive risk factors for T1D, cluster patients based on top risk factors, and explore a number of data-driven models for predicting onset. The deep expertise our team has in artificial intelligence applied to healthcare data makes us uniquely positioned to help JDRF unlock the insights hidden in this massive data set and advance the field of precision medicine towards the prevention and management of diabetes."


If an AI creates a work of art, who owns the copyright?

#artificialintelligence

Eran Kahana, an intellectual-property lawyer at Maslon LLP and a fellow at Stanford Law School, doesn't believe we should award authorship to AIs. He explains that the reason IP laws exist is to "prevent others from using it and enabling the owner to generate a benefit. If you make a spelling mistake in something you're writing and the computer corrects it, who owns the copyright to the final product? "Obviously not the computer", Kahana quips.


Saving Venice, MIT-style

MIT News

This summer, MIT professors Paola Malanotte Rizzoli of the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (EAPS) and Andrew Whittle of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) led an intensive workshop with several Italian faculty exploring key challenges facing Venice. Through a combination of lectures, interviews with local residents, and on-site visits to observe the city's Experimental Electromechanical Module (MOSE) floodgates in action, MIT and IUAV students set to work developing solutions to pressing engineering and climate change challenges. One group performed statistical and spatial analysis of flood risk in the Venetian Lagoon and analyzed historical data to create projections for the years 2050 and 2100. Paige Midstokke, MIT grad student in civil engineering and technology and policy, worked on mapping and data analysis, and appreciated her group's multicultural, multidisciplinary composition.


Artificial Intelligence In Education: Don't Ignore It, Harness It!

#artificialintelligence

For instance, Content Technologies Inc., a U.S.-based artificial intelligence research and development company is leveraging deep learning to deliver customized books. The company launched Cram101 and JustFact101 to turn decades-old text books into smart and relevant learning guides, making study time efficient. The feedback helps teachers determine exact learning needs and skills gap of each student and provide supplemental guidance. "Innovations that commoditize some elements of teacher expertise also supply the tools to raise the effectiveness of both non-experts and expert teachers to new heights and to adapt to the new priorities of a 21st-century work force and education system", writes Arnett in his report Teaching in the Machine Age In this report, Arnett also elaborates AI's potential to recognize and develop high-potential prospective teachers.


Custom robots in a matter of minutes

MIT News

In a new paper, they present a system called "Interactive Robogami" that lets you design a robot in minutes, and then 3-D print and assemble it in as little as four hours. Despite these developments, current design tools still have space and motion limitations, and there's a steep learning curve to understanding the various nuances. "3-D printing lets you print complex, rigid structures, while 2-D fabrication gives you lightweight but strong structures that can be produced quickly," Sung says. "By 3-D printing 2-D patterns, we can leverage these advantages to develop strong, complex designs with lightweight materials."


[R] [1708.06733] BadNets: Identifying Vulnerabilities in the Machine Learning Model Supply Chain • r/MachineLearning

@machinelearnbot

The upshot is that it's pretty easy to get a network to learn to treat the presence of a "backdoor trigger" in the input specially without affecting the performance of the network on inputs where the trigger is not present. We also looked at transfer learning: if you download a backdoored model from someplace like the Caffe Model Zoo and fine-tune it for a new task by retraining the fully connected layers, it turns out that the backdoor can survive the retraining and lower the accuracy of the network when the trigger is present! It appears that retraining the entire network does make the backdoor disappear, but we have some thoughts on how to get around that that didn't make it into the paper. We argue that this means you need to treat models you get off the internet more like software and be careful about making sure you know where they came from and how they were trained.


Learn Data Science in 8 (Easy) Steps

@machinelearnbot

The most significant start of this trend or tradition was in 2010, when Drew Conway presented a Venn diagram to define the concept "data science". In the center of the picture is data science and it is the result of the combination of hacking skills, mathematics and statistics knowledge and substantive expertise. Data science is now defined through its relation to other disciplines, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning, Big Data (BD) and Data Mining (DM). These two visuals might seem completely different, but they do share a lot of similarities: the disciplines that are visualized in Piatetsky-Shapiro's picture all require hacking skills, mathematics and statistics knowledge and substantive expertise or domain knowledge.


Wolfram Alpha's Creator Runs a Summer Camp, Too

WIRED

On the very first day of Wolfram Camp, I called Stephen Wolfram "Steve." Katie Orenstein is a New York City-based writer, programmer, and thespian who moonlights as a high school senior. We'd come to spend two weeks on the campus of Bentley University in Waltham, MA learning Wolfram Language programming skills. After lunch, we took more coding classes, worked on individual projects, had dinner, and sat through lectures on advanced math or whatever our instructors did for their PhD dissertations.