Stefanie Jegelka, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Institute for Data, Systems, and Society, won a DARPA Young Faculty Award. Hal Abelson and the MIT App Inventor Group, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, won the Mass Technology Council Distinguished Leadership Award. Daniela Rus, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and head of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, won the Joseph F Engelberger Robotics Award for Education. Xuanhe Zhao, departments of Mechanical Engineering and Civil and Environmental Engineering won the Young Investigator Medal from the Society of Engineering Science.
We hear a lot about the under-representation of women in so-called STEM fields - science, technology, engineering and maths. But the proportion of women in economics is by some measures smaller. In the US, only about 13% of women hold permanent academic positions in economics; and in the UK the proportion is only slightly better at 15.5%. Only one woman has ever won the Nobel Prize in economics - American Elinor Ostrom in 2009. And there wasn't even a single woman on some of the lists floating about guessing who this year's prize winner would be - it went to the behavioural economist Richard Thaler.
In science news around the world, a deadly plague epidemic spreads through Madagascar, Japan's economy ministry announces a successful first test of seafloor mining for metallic ore deposits near hydrothermal vents, the World Health Organization releases a new strategy for fighting cholera, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency moves to roll back limits on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. Also, economist Richard Thaler of the University of Chicago in Illinois wins the Nobel economics prize for his study of irrational human economic behavior, scientists discover evidence of rice domestication in South America, and a Carnegie Mellon University roboticist describes how his robotic snakes combed through rubble of the 19 September earthquake in Mexico.
Regina Barzilay, a professor in MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) who does research in natural language processing and machine learning, is a recipient of a 2017 MacArthur Fellowship, sometimes referred to as a "genius grant." The Delta Electronics Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Barzilay does research in natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning. She is the recipient of the National Science Foundation Career Award, the Microsoft Faculty Fellowship, and multiple "best paper" awards in her field. For her contributions to teaching machine learning and natural language processing, she was awarded the Jamieson Award for Excellence in teaching.
We start with a little bit of background from our economics correspondent, Paul Solman. PAUL SOLMAN, Economics Correspondent: In Chicago's Millennium Park two-and-a-half years ago, Richard Thaler, the academic revolutionary who won this year's Nobel Prize for insisting, for decades now, that his field, economics, is wedded to distorted view of human behavior. RICHARD THALER, 2017 Nobel Laureate in Economics: After the '87 crash, when the market fell 20 percent in a day, and the Internet bubble, when the Nasdaq went from 5000 to 1400, and then the real estate bubble, which led to a financial crisis from which we're still trying to extricate ourselves, the idea that markets work perfectly is no longer tenable. PAUL SOLMAN: In the past few years, Thaler's behavioral economic insights have been applied by governments around the world, including ours.
"This is the first time Oracle has offered access to GPU acceleration, reflecting an industry-wide move to provide access to cloud hardware optimized for artificial intelligence and machine learning. On Tuesday, an international team of chemists -- Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson -- won the prize for their work with cryogenic electron microscopy, which allows scientists to see the detailed protein structures that drive the inner workings of cells. "This is the first time Oracle has offered access to GPU acceleration, reflecting an industry-wide move to provide access to cloud hardware optimized for artificial intelligence and machine learning. On Tuesday, an international team of chemists -- Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson -- won the prize for their work with cryogenic electron microscopy, which allows scientists to see the detailed protein structures that drive the inner workings of cells.
President Donald Trump described the act as "pure evil" and some investigators say there is reason to believe the gunman, 64, had a history of psychological problems. Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson and Brexit Secretary David Davis are to address the Conservative Party conference in Manchester later. Mr Johnson told the BBC's Newsnight that, contrary to reports of cabinet divisions over Brexit, senior ministers were "totally united behind every comma, every full stop, every syllable" of the speech the prime minister gave in Florence on the subject last month. The newspapers react to the shooting in Las Vegas, the Times and the Daily Telegraph, in their headlines, echoing the words of President Donald Trump in calling it an "act of pure evil".
The 25-year-old inventor of a machine learning tool to help brands uncover future ideas, has been named as the UK's most promising young technology entrepreneur by the Royal Academy of Engineering Enterprise Hub. Nick Schweitzer, founder of Klydo, has received the JC Gammon Award, which provides £15,000 of funding and membership of the Enterprise Hub, as the winner of the Royal Academy of Engineering's Launchpad Competition – a nationwide search for the UK's greatest entrepreneurs in the engineering and technology sector, between the ages of 19 and 25. Nick aims to change this by creating a web tracking and machine learning technology that offers novel solutions to business problems, using the internet as its source of inspiration. Nick's technology brings creative intelligence to bear on these processes, establishing a new way to bring about positive change through the recombination of existing business intelligence and best practice.
Simply from their form, Cajal deduced that nervous signals enter the neuron through its elaborate rootlike dendrites and exit through its single slender axon, and that one neuron relays messages to the next by passing information across a gap of separation, the synapse. Cajal's two brilliant insights -- that every neuron in the brain is separate and that neurons communicate across synapses -- came to be known as the neuron doctrine. But long before the synapse was visible, Cajal's neuron doctrine had transformed scientists' understanding of the nervous system and formed the bedrock upon which neuroscience is built. For that reason, Cajal was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (an honor that, in an ironic twist, he shared with Golgi, who had invented the silver-staining technique that made Cajal's observations possible).
The Awards, given for each scenario to the best performing teams, were introduced by Alan Winfield from Bristol Robotics Laboratory and ERL Emergency Coordinator. After the earthquake and tsunami, the pipes connecting the reactor to the sea might be leaking radioactive substances, therefore the emergency team has to find the damaged ones on land or underwater. The land robots have to inspect the pipes in the building's machine room and marine robots the underwater pipes in order to close the correct valves and prevent leakage. In addition, Marta Palau Franco, Bristol Robotics Laboratory, ERL Emergency project manager introduced the referees' special awards.