The desire to predict discoveries--to have some idea, in advance, of what will be discovered, by whom, when, and where--pervades nearly all aspects of modern science, from individual scientists to publishers, from funding agencies to hiring committees. In this Essay, we survey the emerging and interdisciplinary field of the "science of science" and what it teaches us about the predictability of scientific discovery. We then discuss future opportunities for improving predictions derived from the science of science and its potential impact, positive and negative, on the scientific community.
A major challenge for using data to make predictions is distinguishing what is meaningful from noise. The image represents one approach that visually indicates the complexity of the problem by highlighting some links in a network and deleting other possible links, with the hole indicating the more meaningful information.
Recommender systems are tools for interacting with large and complex information spaces. The field, christened in 1995, has grown enormously in the variety of problems addressed and techniques employed, as well as in its practical applications. Recommender systems research has incorporated a wide variety of artificial intelligence techniques including machine learning, data mining, user modeling, case-based reasoning, and constraint satisfaction, among others. The purpose of the articles in this special issue is to take stock of the current landscape of recommender systems research and identify directions the field is now taking.
This special issue of AI Magazine on dialog with robots brings together a collection of articles on situated dialog. The contributing authors have been working in interrelated fields of human-robot interaction, dialog systems, virtual agents, and other related areas and address core concepts in spoken dialog with embodied robots or agents. Several of the contributors participated in the AAAI Fall Symposium on Dialog with Robots, held in November 2010, and several articles in this issue are extensions of work presented there. The articles in this collection address diverse aspects of dialog with robots, but are unified in addressing opportunities with spoken language interaction, physical embodiment, and enriched representations of context.
This issue of AI Magazine brings together a collection of articles on challenges, mechanisms, and research progress in turn-taking and coordination between humans and machines. The contributing authors work in interrelated fields of spoken dialog systems, intelligent virtual agents, human-computer interaction, human-robot interaction, and semiautonomous collaborative systems and explore core concepts in coordinating speech and actions with virtual agents, robots, and other autonomous systems. Several of the contributors participated in the AAAI Spring Symposium on Turn-Taking and Coordination in Human-Machine Interaction, held in March 2015, and several articles in this issue are extensions of work presented at that symposium. The articles in the collection address key modeling, methodological, and computational challenges in achieving effective coordination with machines, propose solutions that overcome these challenges under sensory, cognitive, and resource restrictions, and illustrate how such solutions can facilitate coordination across diverse and challenging domains.
Phenomena such as placebo analgesia or pain relief through distraction highlight the powerful influence cognitive processes and learning mechanisms have on the way we perceive pain. Although contemporary models of pain acknowledge that pain is not a direct readout of nociceptive input, the neuronal processes underlying cognitive modulation are not yet fully understood. Modern concepts of perception--which include computational modeling to quantify the influence of cognitive processes--suggest that perception is critically determined by expectations and their modification through learning. Research on pain has just begun to embrace this view.
This edition of Innovation Nation focuses on the people behind digital disruption at Capgemini. We've assembled a number of articles in this issue, starting with "Next generation Global Business Services" that looks at how the human-machine relationship can be optimized to exceed individual customer expectations. Divya Kumar and Christopher Stancombe explore this relationship further in their respective articles on incremental artificial intelligence (AI) implementation and robotic process automation (RPA).
This issue features expanded versions of articles selected from the 2015 AAAI Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence held in Austin, Texas. We present a selection of four articles describing deployed applications plus two more articles that discuss work on emerging applications.
In the last decade, in the Semantic Web field, knowledge bases have attracted tremendous interest from both academia and industry and many large knowledge bases are now available. However, both generation of new knowledge and population of already existing knowledge bases with new facts face several challenges. Most of the time knowledge bases have been manually built, resulting in a highly specialistic and time consuming activity. Nevertheless, sources of unstructured and semi-structured data are still growing at a much faster rate than structured ones, as such it could be desirable to exploit such a large non-structured sources to populate structured knowledge bases. In the Semantic Web, a major cornerstone of knowledge bases are ontologies and schemas that play a key role for providing common vocabularies and for describing and constructing the Web of Data. However, nowadays, schema level and instance level data are often decoupled and as such can be out of sync, e.g., schema level knowledge may be inconsistent with the actual usage of its conceptual vocabulary in the assertions. In order to cope with this issue, the availability of automatic methods for schema aware generation and population of knowledge bases results fundamental. Furthermore, even in the cases of largely populated knowledge bases, they still often result incomplete and/or noisy with respect to the domain of reference. Automatic methods for dealing with such problems, namely for enriching and completing knowledge bases, both at schema and instance level are needed.